Friday, May 31, 2019
A Bit of Background InformationWhat is pre- and post-copulatory sexual filling? From the word copulatory, meaning to wasting disease in sexual intercourse, pre-copulatory sexual extract refers to the females choice in selecting a mate before sexual intercourse takes place. Post-copulatory sexual selection occurs within the females reproductive track, and it describes the biological selection (whether due to sperm or the females biology) that results in the fertilization her eggs.Why are guppies good subjects for research in this topic? The most profound reason for using guppies in sexual selection research is because they casually participate in polyandry. This means that in nature a female guppy will mate (willingly or unwillingly) with numerous males at a time, allowing for experiments to be conducted to see which males sperm fertilizes the most eggs.Why use artificial insemination? Before the use of artificial insemination, the results of such experiments were ob scure and varied greatly. There was no way of controlling the males ejaculate sizes or thier specific sexual clash with the female guppies. By using artificial insemination techniques, these two variables can be controlled equal quantities of sperm from each male guppy can be isolated, and no sexual contact need ever take place. The increased control over these variables makes it possible to attain reliable results that are directly related to postcopulatory processes. Introduction Sexual selection is a common facet of evolutionary biology that plays a key role in the mating choices of a variety of different species. Competition amid the males sperm as well as the choice of mate by the female factor into a successful copulation.This experiment examines the precopulatory and postcopulatory demeanour of Poecilia reticulata , the guppy. Artificial insemination was used to separate the factors of sexual selection before and after sexual intercourse. Attractive males in the guppy populationdeemed attractive based on the female guppys affinity for themwere those with high levels of carotenoid coloration (orange, yellow, and red). Relative statures were also compared. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate, through artificial insemination, the role of postcopulatory sexual selection in a population of guppies. If guppy females are partial to specific traits, the propagation of those traits will be evident. The Methods That Were Used Prior to insemination, the behavior of the guppies involved was canvas and one adult, non-virgin female and two sexually immature fish were put in observation tanks.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
The scent of the ocean assaulted my nostrils as I had walked passed it. The palm trees blew in the obnubilate of the cool sudden gust of the tropical, morning air, like smooth feahers swaying side to side. As the majestic giant Philippine eagle swoops past my shoulder I suddenly found myself in my most favorite place to visit on the face of this planet the island paradise of Boracay in the Philippines. Boracay Island combines crystal clear waters, honeyed beaches that squeak, and lush hilly landscapes into an idyllic tourist haven, thats guaranteed to fascinate anyone into tranquil harmony with its simplistic beauty. Boracay is a breath-taking, unbelievably magical Island. A spectacular paradise wad in the unspoiled South China Seas. Boracay Island is a paradise indeed. The beach is amazing with its white sand, it is wide and stretched on for kilometers. The northern and southern parts of the island insurrection intopicturesque hills that face the sea with weather worn cliffs. T he Island has numerous scatteredvillages interconnected by a maze of intriguing jungle trails. Boracay boasts one of the worlds finest beaches (at to the lowest degree in my opinion.) White Beach, a stretch of white - pebble sand, bathed by a strip of perpetually turquoise water allures me in every sense in my body. Bor...
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Music in Shakespeargons Plays Elizabethans, during the time of the notorious William Shakespeare (1564-1616), were highly sensitive to beauty and grace and had an undying enthusiasm for medicinal drug and poetry. Music was a vital part of Elizabethan society it was thought that a humankind who could not read practice of medicine or understand it was poorly educated. The common entertainment and amusement was centered on music, song, and dance, people of all classes enjoyed the splendor of the music at this time. Since music was so popular and so widely understood, it is little wonder that most Elizabethan plays, including Shakespeares plays, have music in them. Shakespeare uses music in his plays for several reasons, all of which are extremely significant. The first is evident in which music was so popular during this time that it influenced the performed plays. Shakespeare had a mixed auditory modality who enjoyed and attended his plays. Music, which was understood practical ly universally allowed everyone to understand his plays and relate to them more easily. If people did not understand the language or the plot, the music could make it easier for them to imitate along. Secondly, on the stage music played a very important role. Music contributed to the atmosphere and set the mood in many of Shakespeares plays. in that location was a special musicians gallery above the stage, the music sometimes was played on the stage, and there were occasions when it was played under the stage to achieve an eery effect. During comedy plays gentle songs would be played with the lute and during tragedies and histories the sounds of trumpets and drums would echo through the theater. For example, if a king entered the trumpets would sound and everyone would know who it was. The Twelfth iniquity is also a good example it includes instrumental serenades and rousing drinking songs, all to show the gaiety and sadness for the mood of the play. Some songs and music are intended to represent a soliloquy, when private thoughts and feelings are performed. Songs, music, and sound effects represent themes, tones, moods, emotions, and even people. Shakespeare, being a lyric poet, used fifty or more songs in his plays and wrote hundreds of stage directions calling for music.
The more thought that is put into the true nature of human beings, the clearer the realization seems to be that as a species, serviceman are inclined to challenge limits that are thought to be understood and transcend set boundaries. This truth of human nature is quite effectively revealed in both The Epic of Gilgamesh and the novel Oryx and Crake. The Epic of Gilgamesh reveals more about the human disposition to push mortal boundaries. It explores the desire to challenge religious boundaries, which save extreme repercussions, as well as fears that were faced when dealing with the truth of human mortality. Oryx and Crake, on the other hand, deals more with the human desire to advance eternal youth, and the moral boundaries that are pushed and most certainly crossed in those endeavours. As each text presents evidence to prove the presence of such desires in human nature, both also seem to argue that boundaries are set for reasons, and that nonhing fruitful can come from the endeav our of crossing them.The Epic of Gilgamesh immediately begins to deal with the human disposition to push limitations for the sport in it, even when there is no necessity which requires it. The reader immediately sees the main character, Gilgamesh, portrayed in an extreme fashion through harrying the young men of Uruk beyond reason. Gilgamesh would leave no son to his father, day and night he would rampage fiercely. Because he was of stronger stock, Gilgamesh open himself unable to resist demonstrating his greatness in comparison to others. Although utilizing wizards abilities is clearly a good thing, doing so only through the waste of others when such force is not required is clearly a frivolous pursuit. Since Gilgamesh could find no proper means whereby to... ...fferent ventures in testing the limitations of human life, they both certainly convey a definite end concerning the degree in which humans can change their fates. Oryx and Crake very directly establishes this, with the statement grief in the face of needed death, the wish to stop time. The human condition, summing up the mortal limitation and the pursuits of the society in the book quite nicely. The Epic of Gilgamesh also leaves the reader with a resembling image to view the quest of breaking limitations with. The city begins and ends in the same way one square mile of city, one square mile of gardens, one square mile of clay pits, a half square mile of Ishtars dwelling, three and a half miles is the measure of Uruk. Nothing about his world or city is changed despite all the trial that Gilgamesh faced throughout to challenge the boundaries that were in place.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
The Marquis de de Sades Attitude Towards WomenThe Marquis de Sade was an author in France in the late 1700s. His workswere infamous in their time, giving Sade a reputation as an adulterer, adebaucher, and a sodomite. One of the more common misrepresentationsconcerning Sade was his attitude toward women. His attitude was shown in hisway of life and in deuce of his literary characters, Justine and Julliette.The Marquis de Sade was said to be the first and only philosopher of vicebecause of his atheistic and sadistic activities. He held the common fair sex in abject regard. He believed that women dressed provocatively because they fearedmen would take no notice of them if they were naked. He cared little forforced sex. Rape is not a crime, he explained, and is in fact less thanrobbery, for you get what is used back after the deed is done (Bloch 108).Opinions about the Marquis de Sades attitude towards sexual forgivedom forwomen varies from author to author. A prevalent one, the one h eld by Carter,suggests Sades work concerns sexual freedom and the nature of such,significant because of his "refusal to see fe virile sexuality in relation to a productive function."Sade justified his beliefs through graffiti, playing psychologist onvandalsIn the stylization of graffiti, the prick isalways presented erect, as an alert attitude.It points upward, asserts. The hole is open, asan inert space, as a mouth, waiting to be filled.This iconography could be derived from themetaphysical sexual differences man aspires,woman serves no function but existence, waiting.Between her thighs is zero, the symbol of nothingness, that only attainssomethingness when male principle fills it with meaning (Carter 4).The Marquis de Sades way of thought is probably best symbolized in themissionary position. The missionary position represents the mythicrelationship between partners. The woman represents the passive receptiveness,the fertility, and the richness of soil. This relationship m ythicizes andelevates intercourse to an unrealistic proportion. In a more realistic view,Sade compares married women with prostitutes, saying that prostitutes werebetter paid and that they had few delusions (Carter 9).Most of Sades opinions of women were geared towards the present, in whatthey were in his time. He held different opinions, however, for how heenvisioned w... ...ries felt. Bypunishing Justine in his novels, he isnt punishing woman, simply the innocencethat woman represents.While Sade believed that the woman with which he was copulating was simplythere to serve his needs, he also felt it could (and should) work the other wayaround. It is as if he is saying, "Just because I use you, it doesnt meanyou cant use me." Sade couldnt be a sexist in the modern sense, simplybecause he advocated free sexuality so much.He byword the women of his time and was troubled by it. In turn, he wroteabout these women, represented in Justine. The woman he saw in the future werea bolder, free-spirited kind, represented in Juliette. It was the promise ofthis new genre of women he looked forward to and was enlightened by.In short, Sade disliked crush women and liked empowered women. Heliked women closer to his own persona. Sade was probably the firstpornographer, and as such, caused quite an uproar. Most of the judgements madeabout Sade by critics were reflexes, made without taking in the full spectrumof what he was, what he wrote, and what he did. The judgement of Sade by thepopulus, therefore is one more weighty than it should be.
The Marquis de de Sades Attitude Towards WomenThe Marquis de Sade was an actor in France in the late 1700s. His workswere infamous in their time, giving Sade a reputation as an adulterer, adebaucher, and a sodomite. One of the to a greater extent common misrepresentationsconcerning Sade was his attitude toward women. His attitude was shown in his bureau of life and in two of his literary characters, Justine and Julliette.The Marquis de Sade was said to be the first and nevertheless philosopher of vicebecause of his atheistic and sadistic activities. He held the common woman inlow regard. He believed that women dressed provocatively because they fearedmen would take no notice of them if they were naked. He cared little forforced sex. Rape is not a crime, he explained, and is in fact less thanrobbery, for you get what is used back after the deed is done (Bloch 108).Opinions somewhat the Marquis de Sades attitude towards sexual freedom forwomen varies from author to author. A preval ent one, the one held by Carter,suggests Sades work concerns sexual freedom and the nature of such,significant because of his "refusal to see female sexuality in relation to areproductive function."Sade justified his beliefs through graffiti, playing psychologist onvandalsIn the stylization of graffiti, the prick isalways presented erect, as an alert attitude.It points upward, asserts. The hole is open, asan indifferent space, as a mouth, waiting to be filled.This iconography could be derived from themetaphysical sexual differences man aspires,woman serves no function but existence, waiting.Between her thighs is zero, the symbol of nothingness, that only attainssomethingness when male principle fills it with meaning (Carter 4).The Marquis de Sades way of thought is probably best symbolized in themissionary position. The missionary position represents the mythicrelationship amid partners. The woman represents the passive receptiveness,the fertility, and the richness of soil . This relationship mythicizes andelevates intercourse to an unrealistic proportion. In a more realistic view,Sade compares married women with prostitutes, saying that prostitutes werebetter paying(a) and that they had fewer delusions (Carter 9).Most of Sades opinions of women were geared towards the present, in whatthey were in his time. He held different opinions, however, for how heenvisioned w... ...ries felt. Bypunishing Justine in his novels, he isnt punishing woman, entirely the innocencethat woman represents.While Sade believed that the woman with which he was copulating was simplythere to serve his needs, he also felt it could (and should) work the other wayaround. It is as if he is saying, "Just because I use you, it doesnt meanyou cant use me." Sade couldnt be a sexist in the modern sense, simplybecause he advocated free sexuality so much.He saw the women of his time and was troubled by it. In turn, he wroteabout these women, represented in Justine. The woman h e saw in the future werea bolder, free-spirited kind, represented in Juliette. It was the promise ofthis new genre of women he looked forward to and was enlightened by.In short, Sade dislike subjugated women and liked empowered women. Heliked women closer to his own persona. Sade was probably the firstpornographer, and as such, caused quite an uproar. Most of the judgements madeabout Sade by critics were reflexes, made without taking in the full spectrumof what he was, what he wrote, and what he did. The judgement of Sade by thepopulus, therefore is one more severe than it should be.
Monday, May 27, 2019
CHILDHOOD DISORDERS part children can use up similar mental wellness problems that adults have, like anxiety or depression, childrens problems a lot have a different focus. Children may have difficulty with changes associated with growing up, such as starting school. They may lag behind in comparison to how other children their age are progressing, or during stressful times, they may behave like a young child would do. Even when children do have problems that also appear in adults, the problem tends to look different in a child. For example, anxious children are often very concerned about their parents and other family members. They may want to be near loved mavins at solely times to be sure that everyone is all right. This settle covers the following topicsChildhood Anxiety,Encopresis,Enuresis, andOppositional Behavior.Childhood AnxietyChildhood anxiety occurs when a child is overly anxious, experiences separation anxiety, or avoids certain situations, people, or places. nor mal signs of puerility anxiety include excessive distress when separated from home or from family members, worry about losing a loved one, worry about macrocosm lost or kidnapped, fear of going to school or away from home, difficulty sleeping away from home, and nightmares. Physical complaints such as stomachaches and headaches are car park when the child is anticipating organism separated from parents or other family members, such as spending the weekend with grandparents.These symptoms sometimes develop after an upsetting event in the childs life, such as the death of a loved one or a pet, beginning or changing schools, moving, or being ill. Some evidence suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial for treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. While other psychotherapies may be helpful for treatment of childhood anxiety, they have not been evaluated scientifically in the same way as the treatment listed here. The Anxiety Disorders of Association of America Anxiety D isorder in Children and Adolescents site has specific information about how anxiety disorders appear in children thatmay be different from adult anxiety. EncopresisEncopresis is the inability to find out bowel movements, resulting in defecation (bowel movement) in clothing, in the live, or on the floor. Encopresis is diagnosed in children who are at least 4 years old, although frequently children younger than 4 also cannot go out their bowels. Encopresis more commonly affects boys than girls. Some evidence suggests that behavior modification is beneficial for treatment of encopresis. While other psychotherapies may be helpful for treatment of encopresis, they have not been evaluated scientifically in the same way as the treatment listed here. The Childrens Medical Center at the University of Virginia (Kids Health) has an delicate website with more information about normal bowel habits and facts on encopresis.EnuresEnures is, commonly kn make as bedwetting, is repeated urination during the day or night into bed or clothes. Enuresis is diagnosed in children who are at least 5 years old, although younger children often do have difficulty controlling urination. behavioral treatment is well-established as a beneficial treatment for enuresis. Behavioral treatment usually involves the use of a pissing alarm device and parent education. While other psychotherapies may be helpful for treatment of enuresis, they have not been evaluated scientifically in the same way as the treatment listed here. Click on the Fact Sheet on Bed-Wetting (PDF) for more facts on enuresis and some tips on helping your child with this problem. If you are interested in obtaining a urine alarm device, use your web browser to search forurine alarm device to find companies who sell these products on the internet.Oppositional BehaviorOppositional behavior includes things like losing ones temper, arguing with parents or teachers, refusing to follow rules, being mean or seeking revenge, delibe rately annoying people, being angry and resentful, blaming others for ones own mistakes, and persistently being stubborn and unwilling to compromise. Usually oppositional behavior occurs at home, but it may also occur at school or in the community. Oppositional behavior is common in both preschool children and in adolescents. reboot Management Training is well-established as a beneficial treatment for oppositional behavior inchildren.Parent Management Training involves helping parents learn new skills for dealing with oppositional and defiant behavior. While other psychotherapies may be helpful for treatment of oppositional behavior, they have not been evaluated scientifically in the same way as the treatment listed here. The Not My Kid site has links with information on oppositional behavior, parent guides, anger control tips, and support groups. PAGBASA ang pagbasa ay isang proseso o paraan ng pagkuha ng ideya, informasyon o kahulugan sa mga simbulong nakalimbag. ito ay nkktulon g rin sa ating kaalaman upang lumawak ang ating isipan.Ano ang salik sa pagbasa at proseso ng pagbasa?Ang mga salik na nakakapekto sa pagbasa ng isang tao ay pisyolohikal, sikolohikal, pangkaisipan, pangkapaligiran, panlipunan at panlinggwistika.Ano ang salik sa pagbasa at proseso ng pagbasa?Ang mga salik na nakakapekto sa pagbasa ng isang tao ay pisyolohikal, sikolohikal, pangkaisipan, pangkapaligiran, panlipunan at panlinggwistika. Teorya ng pagbasa teorya ng pagbasa a. Teoryang Bottom-Up- Ito ay isang traditional na pagbasa. Ito ay bunga ng teoryang behaviorist na higit na nagbibigay pokus sa kapaligiran sa paglinang ng komprehension saang mga uri ng pagsulat ay ang mga sumusunod1. akademik2. teknikal3. jornalistik4. reperensyal5. propesyonal6. MalikhainMga Layunin sa PagsulatEkspresivTransaksyunal Isa itong impormal na paraan ng pagsulat. Gumagamit ito ng unang panauhan naako, ko, akin, at iba pa, sa pagsasalaysay. Sarili ng manunulat ang target nitong mambabasa. Naglalarawan it o ng personal na damdamin, saloobin, ideya at paniniwala. Nakapaloob din dito ang sariling karanasan ng manunulat at pala-palagay sa mga bagay-bagay na nangyayari sa paligid. Malya ang paraan ng pagsulat dito at walang sensura. Hindi gaanong mahalaga rito ang gramatika at pagbaybay ng ga salita bagkus mahalaga rito na mailabas kung ano ang talagang naiisip at nararamdaman ng isang tao. Halimbawa nito ay dyornal, talaarawan, personal na liham at pagtugan sa ilang isyu. Layunin nito na maipahayag ang sariling pananaw, kaisipan at damdamin sa pangyayari. Ito ay isang pormal na paraan ng pagsulat na may tiyak na target na mambabasa, tiyak na layunin at tiyak na paksa. Karaniwang ginagamit dito ang ikatlong panauhan na siya, sila, niya, nila, at iba pa sa paglalahad ng teksto Ibang tao ang target nitong mambabasa. Hindi ito masining o malikhaing pagsulat bagkus itoy naglalahad ng katotohanan na sumusuporta sa pangunahing ideya. Nagbibigay ito ng interpretasyon sa panitikan, nagsusuri, na gbibigay ng impormasyon, nanghihikayat, nangangatwiran, nagtuturo o kayay nagbibigay ngensahe sa iba. Kontrolado ang paraan ng psagsulat dahil may pormat o istilo ng pagsulat na kailangang sundin. Halimbawa nito ay balita, artikulo, talambuhay, patalastas, liham sa pangangalakal, papel sa pananaliksik, ulat, rebyu, sanaysay na pampanitikan, sanaysay na naghihikayat, sanaysay na nangangatwiran, interbyu, editorial, dokumentaryo at iba pa.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
As You wish well It represents, together with Much Ado About Nothing and Twelfth Night, the inwardness of Shakespeares achievement in festive, happy comedy during the years 1598-1601, proclaims David Bevington his The Complete Works of Shakespeare (288). Bevington is obviously not the first editor to have categorized Shakespeares tinkers. In fact, part of the plays popularity might be based upon the fact that audiences know what to assume when they begin viewing the productions. For example, As You Like Its title hints that audiences should expect the play to termination happily. This plays name is not, however, all that helps classify it as a comedy. Every element of the play drips with comedic elements, as Shakespeare characteristically critiques chouse, darn highlighting the plain motif.The theme of the play is an obvious remark on its classification. Shakespeare exploits literary convention by mocking the foolishness love generates in us all. Kenneth Muir, in Shakespeares Comic Sequence, declares, His Shakespeares lovers-Rosalind, Orlando, Celia, Oliver and quin-would all make answer to Marlowes question Who ever loved that loved not at first battle array? with a chorus of No one.(88) Each of the characters do and say impulsive things based solely on emotion. The Forest of Arden gives the characters freedom to act in such silly manners. Once their love relationships have been realized in marriage, the couples can prepare to return to the order, and presumably reason, of the philander.The plot of As You Like It centers on the love relationships of four couples. Made up of the lovers stories and the story of the overthrown Duke Senior, who has fled into the Forest of Arden, the plot is quite complex. It centers on the movement of the characters from the court to the forest and then readying themselves to return to court. The play begins with the instantaneous falling in love of Rosalind and Orlando at court and the nearly simultaneous retreat of ea ch into the Forest of Arden, due to Duke Fredericks sudden pooh-pooh for Rosalind and Olivers intention to kill Orlando. The plotline continues with Rosalind disguised as Ganymede, a male child, blocking Rosalind and Orlandos love. The plot moves from disorder to order, though, and the play concludes with a typical comic final result a marriage ceremony.The marriage masque advertize solidifies the plays comedic classification. Helen Gardner notes in her article that the masque of Hymen returns order as it is able to end the whole with courtly grace and dignity. This is an image of civility and true society, for Hymen is a perfection of cities (59). A song sung at the wedding feed declares Hymens dominion over townsTis Hymen peoples every town / High wedlock then be honored. / Honor, high honor and renown / To Hymen, god of every town (Shakespeare, V. iv. 142-145).Furthermore, the scene accounts for all of the characters happy state Rosalind and Orlando have finally overcome al l obstacles to be united Oliver and Celia are able to in a flash marry and Oliver has changed his ways Silvius finally obtains Phoebes love Touchstone and Audrey are married and Duke Frederick has repented and joined a monastery, leaving Duke Senior to assume his just throne. All problems have been resolved, which leaves no room for arguing that the play is a comedy.The characters also prove that the play has been appropriately classified. The different lovers demonstrate unimaginative kinds of love. reviewer Kenneth Muir remarks, In As You Like It different kinds of love are examined-the lust of Touchstone, the self-love of Jacques, the pride and vanity of Phoebe, and the sentimental idealism of Orlando-and all are set up wanting (91). The central relationship is amidst Rosalind and Orlando, whom Bertrand Evans describes as the brightest of Shakespeares bright heroines and the least conscious of his unconscious heroes (92).Orlando seems a typical jock. He wrestles Charles in the court and then falls hopelessly in love with Rosalind-so hopelessly in love that he, despite being a poor poet, carves Rosalinds name and poems nigh her into tree trunks. Although Oliver has denied him a gentlemans education, he is a noble character, who is loyal to his servant Adam, brave enough to fight Charles, and loving when speaking nigh his beloved Rosalind. Nonetheless, Orlando must have somewhat naivet in order for Rosalind to continue fooling him. Evans expounds,Despite the deserved praise which Oliver heaps upon Orlando , Orlando is exposed repeatedly in situations of which the truth eludes him. His abrupt disposal of Charles the wrestler his first tongue-tied meeting with Rosalind his sword-brandishing, valiant, and frightfully un sensitive entrance to demand food of Duke Senior-all these are separate of the preparation. (92-3)Orlandos good intentions are mocked somewhat by his actions.Rosalind is also a good person, as is evident in her devotion to Celia, her f ather, and Orlando. However, Rosalinds disguise leads to some humorous scenes as the (at least, original) audience is aware of the fact that, as Muir describes, when Ganymede is helping Orlando, We have a boy pretending to be a woman, pretending to be a boy, pretending to be a boy, pretending to be a woman, satirising feminine behaviour (90). Her disguise provides numerous incongruities as the audience continues to see the manful Ganymede in opposition to Rosalind. Taking on a masculine role helps Rosalind to develop inner strength. In fact, Diane Dreher explains in her analysis of androgynous Shakespearean characters that Rosalinds disguise enables her to examine Orlandos motives, allowing her to say and do things that traditional feminine modestly would not permit (121). Despite her depth of character, the audience is constantly aware of her super objective to marry Orlando. This goal in and of itself is a romantic convention that cannot be ignored.While Oliver and Duke Frederick appear as antagonistic characters in the extraction scenes when they are at court, both make a turn around after entering the forest. Shakespeare utilizes a romantic convention, the sudden conversion of a villain, to further illuminate the plays comedic nature. When Orlando rescues Oliver from a lioness, Oliver finds favor in his younger brother, and the two are reunited. Oliver and Orlandos brother Jacques explains that Duke Frederick has changedAnd to the skirts of this wild wood Duke Frederick came, / Where, meeting with an old religious man, / afterward some question with him, was converted / Both from his enterprise and from the world, / His crown bequeathing to his banished brother, / And all their lands restored to them again / That were with him exiled. (Shakespeare, V. iv. 158-164).Entering the woods leads the characters to become better people.The characters language, although sometimes a cow chip poetic, is rather common. The plays pastoral elements make prose a more likely language choice. In fact, Dr. Sharron Cassavant, professor of English at Northeastern University has work out that 54.5 percent of the plays 2, 636 lines are written in prose. The opening scene, exposition in conversation between Orlando and Adam, is entirely prose. Rosalind and Celia also interchange in prose. Prose dominates the dialogue between the lovers. Rhymed verse is generally used when Orlando attempts to write poems about his beloved Rosalind. Blank verse, a higher form, is used most often by Jacques, unless Duke Senior also utilizes to proclaim the good that nature has offered him. In this critique of love, blank verse is reserved most often for use by those characters insensible(p) by love. The language lends itself to the plays love-at-first-sight theme in that the lovers do not have time to organize their thoughts in a collected way, but rather speak whatever first enters their mind.The play appeals to the comedic audience visually and aurally as well. Most no tably, Rosalinds disguise allows the audience, aware of the fact that the boy they see pretending to be a woman is actually the woman he is pretending to be, to laugh at the incongruities of Orlandos pretend love for and Phoebes real love for Ganymede. The disguise also presents funny sounds as Rosalinds voice must change depending on the character she is playing. The other pastoral characters also lend country-bumpkin accents to the plays aural elements, as they are less sophisticated than the courtly characters.As You Like It could not be more comedic. Each of the plays elements presents stereotypical characteristics of comedy. Shakespeare obviously knew the requirements of each genre and managed to control those requirements while never ceasing to dazzle his audience. His works were all as we like them.Works CitedBevington, David. Introduction to As You Like It. The Complete Works of Shakespeare.By Bevington. NY Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1997. 288-91.Cassavant, Sharron. As Yo u Like It Main page. Introduction to Shakespeare. CourseWebsite. Dept. of English, Northeastern University. 11 December 2004.Dreher, Diane Elizabeth. Domination and Defiance Fathers and Daughters inShakespeare. Lexington, KY The University conspire of Kentucky, 1986. OBUEvans, Bertrand. Shakespeares Comedies. Oxford The Clarendon Press, 1960. OBUGardner, Helen. As You Like It. Shakespeare the Comedies A Collection of CriticalEssays, Ed. Kenneth Muir. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall, Inc.,1965.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
This essay examines the interaction between dualism and modern cognitive lores. Additionally, it examines a modern defendant of dualism, and extrapolates his reasoning further into the 21st-century in interacting with cognitive science developments in the future. Finally, it examines how dualism is already a caper in modern factors such as healthcare, and how it result need to further adapt for the betterment of society.Dualism Mind, Body, and Cognitive Science Dualism has been a powerful cornerstone in both western and Eastern cultures for many another(prenominal) years, chiefly because it is so centrally located within spiritual texts. The New Testament, for instance, makes a clear division between the soul of Jesus and his form, and how those kick downstairsd entities were reunited for the resurrection of Jesus. by chance more(prenominal) than practically, the Bhagavad-Gita emphasizes the separation of intellect and body as a tool with which one can combat every social o ccasion from doubt to boredom ones body may be doing troubling tasks (such as killing family members, as Krishna asks Arjuna to do) or only menial tasks, but ones minda separate entityis encouraged to stay focused on Krishna, regardless of the bodys actions. With these spiritual texts playing such a central violate in Western and Eastern cultures, it is no surprise to discover that dualism has endured with such strength over the years.However, dualism (as with many aspects of the religious texts that help promote it) becomes more problematic when modern science and medicine are applied to it. The most humble behaviorist models of psychological science pose their own problems, as the study of correlations between outer environmental experiences and the minds reaction subject to close the gap between mind and body, as opposed to expanding it. The flawed practice of logical behaviorism does the same social function reducing human being interactions to a predictable math equation that does not account for the inherent illogic of the separation of mind and body.Reductive materialism attempts to submit so-called phratry psychology with neuroscience, claiming that mental states and brain states are one and the same, eliminating the need for dualism. Failures of reductive materialism led to the theory of functionalism, which considers minds to be equal (as in, correspondent mental states) that simply react to outward stimuli. This cause and effect belief seemingly eliminates the sparedom of thought necessary to dualism, as the minds actions simply become reactions to the bodys experiences and needs.However, modern dualism is not without its arguments, nor its defenders. According to Dr. Embree, there are three primary arguments for the existence and necessity of dualism the first, as alluded to above, is that epiphenomenalism inherently undermines the validity of thought (2009). What this means is that any scientific explanation that attempts to debunk dual ism (or does so as a byproduct) must bring with it the sobering effect of m equivalentg free exit a simple illusion that individuals believe as a kind of personal myth.This works on the level of national myths as head according to functionalist theory, the Founding Fathers of America were not free thinkers (a thought that would let troubled Thomas Paine, to say the least), but were simply reacting to the external stimuli they experienced. Perhaps more troubling to this national myth is the equalizing effect of functionalism not only did George Washington do what he did in accordance with external stimuli, he did what anyone in his place, with his means, would have done.Instead of being an agent of his destiny and of Americas, he was simply one vessel (of potentially many) for the predictable frame of destiny. The second argument Dr. Embree puts by for dualism is that epiphenomenalism provides no explanation for the subjective elementsof conscious experience (2009). According to this, attempts to explain the universe in terms of cause and effect creates one large problem that consciousness can be explained mechanistically (2009).Embree concedes that one might believe no such mechanism has been discovered yet, and one may simply be waiting for the day that such a thing is discoveredhowever, that pushes what is supposed to be a scientific, rational inquiry perilously close to something more akin to religious faith, in two ways one is the contentment to wait for the arrival of something which will validate ones world view, and two (much more troubling) is establishing so many other things on the shaky ground that is this faith.For a religion, this is understandable. As a scientific inquiry into the workings of the human mind, it is quite disconcerting. Embrees final argument for dualism is that epiphenomenalism requires acceptance of deterministic assumptions about human nature and behavior (2009). Embree himself admits that this is the weakest of his three a rguments, because it does not deal with logical or evidentiary flaws in epiphenomenalism, but rather with the troubling aftermath.According to him, accepting that our behaviors are strictly and solely determined by forces outside our control renders us puppets (2009) who are ineffective to ethically try and imprison fellow citizens, simply because the rejection of dualism leads to an inevitable triumph of nature over nurture just as George Washington did the only thing he could in reaction to his environment, so too did this murderer, or that rapist. If their thoughts truly arent free, their thoughts are not their own, and punishing them no longer has any rely of them plicationing over a new leaf, but instead becomes an arbitrary exercise in authority.On an emotional level, Embrees arguments are very persuasive. On a philosophic level, very few individuals would be pleased to think of themselves as lacking free will. And, as he points out, even fewer individuals would be willing to overturn the entirety of how modern society is constructed simply to make it more philosophically consistent. However, by Embrees own admission, the belief in dualism essentially gives itself a get out of jail free card. When it comes to hard questions, such as whether consciousness can be determined mechanistically or not, a dualist is free to take or leave explanations as they see fit.This is precisely because dualism, brought natural covering to its Cartesian foundations, is founded on observation and assumption. Even as Descartes acknowledges the limits of observation (the hatful in front of him could always be a dream image), his famous conclusionI think, therefore I amis, itself, an assumption. Any attempts at rationally explaining why the brain acts or reacts in specific ways to specific stimuli represents a threat to this simple principle, and dualists protest against the futility of it.Ironically, perhaps, for a philosophy that self-associates so vividly with free t hinking, that attempts to curtail discussion into the mind/body problem are the philosophic equivalent of the dualists locking the behaviorists away, a la Galileo. The immunity to think seems inconsistent with the freedom to explore why we think. The final assertion of Embrees is persuasive as well, though not necessarily in the way that hes intended. He is correct that society is effectively set in its ways, so any major advancements or discoveries regarding the way that individuals think is not likely to turn society on its ear.However, such a view that this process is all or nothingthat is to say that all of society changes, right down to our notions of justice, or nothing changesis oversimplifying the matter to an obscene degree, To use an analogy, Darwins discoveries did not mean that society had an obligation, more or otherwise, to burn down every church they saw. However, it amounted to an additive change in the way the world works on the part of everyone who believed in t he scientific findingsa series of micro changes that eventually worked on a macro level.This is particularly true of discoveries related to how the mind worksthe entire justice system was not turned inside out in reception to the discoveries of Freud, but the incremental changes his psychological revelations brought about in individuals did eventually affect the justice system in terms of sentencing prisoners, organizing prisons, and simply understanding criminal behavior. What go most true about Embrees work, perhaps, is his correct assertion that on some level, people need to believe in dualism, if only to preserve the freedom of thought.Individuals being told that they are only doing or saying something because of the environment nearly them will feel no more illuminated than someone told they are doing or saying something because God or the Devil are making them do it. It risks robbing life of its spark, or zest. However, what Embree seems to overlook are the astounding advan cements in sheer human empathy that are offered by discovering how the mind works. Freedom of thought certainly sounds attractive, like a bumper sticker one might wear in Orwells 1984 (shortly in the first place Big Brother had this person taken away, of course).However, to continue the Orewellian strand, freedom of thought does not prevent group think simply because societies attempt to organize around their cultural similarities and when that proves insufficient, they rally around their dissimilarity to other groups. White, rural communities continue subtle (and some not so subtle) forms of segregation against black and Hispanic individuals. On a national level, in the so-called Post 9/11 world, citizens are measured by just how American they are, and extra scrutiny is tending(p) to those from another country.This is, of course, the double-sided coin of dualism as Stefan Eck points out, Descartes did not only help establish the natural sciences, but also the freedom of thought i n philosophy, the humanitieshis philosophical ideas were important for the emergence of modern politics of freedom and equality (2009, p. 158). Doing anything to dismantle this may be seen by opponents as political maneuveringquelling their ability to pack personal philosophy in the name of an ambiguous future unity.Right now, this tendency to fear and rally against the unknown is a major form of social unityuniting in solidarity against the perceived threat of an unknown and unknowable Other. Discoveries in the way the mind works can continue down the course towards true equality because individuals will be able to empathize better with, for instance, an illegal immigrant, because they will no longer see them as outsider threats to the external notion of America, but simply one of their own possible fates had they not been born in a time and place of great privilege and prosperity. disdain this, there are many exciting possibilities for dualism in the 21st century. As mentioned above, the basic tenets of dualism remain necessary to focus most individuals on achievement. If they are make to feel like their special achievements are effectively a lottery that someone else could have one, it would threaten to derail the entire notion of human achievement. In this superstar, dualism remains necessary for the realm of politics, as well.For obvious reasons, a system of representative democracy would fall apart if individuals thought that the person they were voting for would do no worse or no better than another individual from the same circumstances and location. As Dr. Embree so eloquently describes, a belief in dualism remains necessary for a belief in justice to seem well-founded. The justice system is already under severe scrutiny for possible flaws shell not to give critics more philosophical ammunition by implying that guilt is a subjective force that no human can logically portion out to another human.Stefan Eck describes this quite well Cartesian duali sm is precisely one of the foundations of the politics of freedom and equality that Lock and Farquhar propose. Descartes says that the mind is independent of the physical body that contains it. new-fashioned politics hold that peoples opinions are to be kept separate from bodily attributes such as gender, skin color, or beauty, that the minds of those who take part in the political sphere have to be split from their bodies to ensure that bodily difference is not turned into political difference.(2009, p. 156-157) Ideally, though, modern dualism and modern dualists will not be against inquiries into the way the mind works. Modern medicine, as a whole, will continue its struggle with how far down the dualism rabbit hole it is fain to go. Grant Duncan points out that Western medicine often regards pain as a simply bodily sensation, and that modern medicine often neglects psychological factors in health and illness (2000, p. 493).The reason for this is simple the extreme end of believ ing that pain is often entirely in the mind is the end that is sharing ledge space with books on healing crystals and other holistic claptrap. Grant goes on to point out that in the overmedicated modern world, those who experience chronic pain do their best to justify the pain and to avoid the label of psychogenic if the pain does not fall into that physical category, then it is likely to be treated with hesitation and moral disapproval (2000, p. 507-508).This is the brutal bottom line those whose pain is only in their mind will often be regarded as someone act to scam the doctor for unnecessary medication. Meanwhile, psychologistsin a field that, theoretically, is most threatened by inquiries that would eliminate dualism once and for allcontinue to experience reproving representations in modern media as head shrinkers who are content to blame all modern problems on the unhurrieds mother and then pecker them an exorbitant amount. Where, then, does this leave modern psychology a nd its inevitable ties to dualism?Ideally, psychologists will realize that fields such as neuroscience are approaching the same problems as psychology approaches, merely from a different angle. Reductive materialism is another great example of this, as it takes the things that psychology focuses on (beliefs and appetencys) and claims that these can be restated and explained through neurosciencethat neuroscience is not attempting to invalidate a persons beliefs and desires as necessary aspects of their psychological make-up, but to explain why they experience those desires.As Scott Arnold puts it, reductive materialism allows that behavior has mental causes and that the causative processes may be complex, involving a series of mental causes and effects ultimately resulting in behavior (2010). In the future, psychology and neuroscience may very well work as one entity that may come to be preventative, as opposed to simply reactive. What does this mean?Instead of saying patient X has unhealthy desire Y, we are prescribing medicine Z, the combined future of psychology and neuroscience may be more like patient X is predisposed towards behaviors Y, we are prescribing Z course of treatment to avoid these behaviors. This is what Arnold means when he says that we have a kind of Double Language Theory, in which there are two languages (the language of folk psychology and the language of the neurosciences) to talk about one and the same phenomenon, the neurosciences (2010).Ultimately, reductive materialism is more inclusive than exclusive, allowing a mixture of the two worlds. The result will be a future that is likely a shared dream between doctor and patient a world that minimizes medication, circumvents and prevents negative behavior, and ultimately allows for the patient to spend less time on the therapeutic couch, and more time in the world itself, enjoying life. In all likelihood, the cognitive sciences and the proponents of dualism will have a long, rocky road to travel together.Dualism is necessary for individuals to believe in abstracts (freedom, desire), whereas the cognitive sciences are necessary for individuals to understand, in concrete terms, what is happening with their brains. In the future, it is likely the dualism will be taught (even more than it is now) in philosophy and ethics classes as just one possible outset of human thought, as opposed to the sole branch which must bear the weight of the entire human experience without ever snapping.Reductive materialism points out the irony of the likeliest fate of the cognitive sciences and dualism just as reductive materialism is necessary to transform the language of the peoplefolk psychologyinto neuroscience terms, it will be necessary for someone to re-translate any new breakthroughs back into the language of common people. Perhaps this is the function that dualism will always serve, even among its proponents that cognitive science research actually works within the boundaries of dualism in the sense that it focuses on the body, while dualists are free to concentrate on their mental sphere however they wish.Perception, after all, does determine reality, and no amount of cognitive science research can undermine a dualists own reality unless they will it to be so. At the end of the day, dualism is actually much closer at home to the spiritual writings that have helped carry its torch than it ever will be to the sciences. Dualism is the language of hope and faitha belief in the perfectibility of the soul when the perfectibility of the body seems impossible. Cognitive science, however, remains what it always has not the language of what may be, but the language of what is. References Arnold, Scott (2010).The mind body problem. University of Alabama, Birmingham. Retrieved May 15th, 2010, from http//www. uab. edu/ philosophy/ cogency/arnold/4-Mind- body. htm Duncan, G. (2000) Mind-Body Dualism and the Biopsychosocial Model of Pain What did Descartes Really Say? , Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 254, 485-513 Ecks, Stefan (2009). Welcome home, Descartes Rethinking the anthropology of the body. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 52 (1), 153-158. Embree, Marlowe (2009). Why I am a dualist. University of Wisconsin. Retrieved May 15th, 2010, from http//www. marathon. uwc. edu/psychology/dualist. htm
Friday, May 24, 2019
In the first 24 hours of the launch on September 20, 2013, apple Inc. sold 2,750,000 iPhone 5s. The Apple iPhone is the surpass sold smartphone and is continuing to control the market. The iPhone 5s is a very respected and prominent product, it is used by millions of people for many tasks like work and school. There argon few things that stand out to me that I have chosen for the iPhone 5s to evaluate it in Design, Technology, Softw atomic number 18, and the App Store. I believe that the iPhone 5s proves itself in solely of these categories, and many people would acquiesce with me, as well as disagree.The design plays a huge role in cell phones, it has to grasp the buyers attention and make them want the product safe by looking at it or by watching someone use it. The iPhone 5s does this really well, Apple engineers and designers managed to compress the technologies they made inside a pose thats a mere 7.6 millimeters thin and 112 grams light. This redesign resulted in an incr edibly thin, impressively light, extraordinarily powerful smartphone. The engineering challenge was signifi nookiet, but they succeeded in adding much to it without making iPhone 5s bigger or heavier.The iPhone began with something arrant(a)ly simple, your hitchhike. And now Apple took touch to the next possible place with Touch ID, the fingerprint identity sensor. Your fingerprint is the perfect password, you always have it with you and no one can ever guess what it is. But beyond that, it just made sense that your phone should recognize you. It should regard you, not require you to memorize and enter passwords in order to use it. Apple in any case adjust the sensor in the best place possible, where you nigh commonly rest your thumb, on the Home button. It is amazing how Apple increased the speed of the iPhone 5s without decreasing the battery life, in fact, they increased the battery life.This is all current because Apple engineered a new touch chip. The A7 chip is design ed around 64-bit architecture, which is a first for any smartphone. The move to 64-bit chip made it possible for desktop-class processing power in the palm of peoples hands. The A7 chip gives iPhone 5s the power it needs for all the capabilities it now has. Its up to 2x faster than the previous times in both CPU and graphics performance, it has an all-new image signal processor, and it supports OpenGL ES 3.0, which enables visual effects previously possible only on computers and gaming consoles.Even with all these performance enhancements,A7 is still energy efficient.The new M7 coprocessor is designed to make iPhone 5s even more efficient. It mop uploads work from the A7 chip by collecting motion data, then Apps can use this data without constantly using the A7 chip. Because M7 is engineered for this specific task, it uses significantly less power than A7 would require, so battery life is spared.Another big role in cell phones is its features, the more there are, the more appealin g it is. Apple is an outstanding contender in this specific criterion because they make their own advanced technology, which adds many nerveless feature. The iPhone 5s is precision crafted down to the micron. It has a beautiful aluminum housing, very sleek metal and glass, sky-blue crystal in the Home button and more sapphire crystal protecting the iSight camera. Design and construction of this level is unmatched so the iPhone 5s looks and feels unbelievably thin and light. It is also available in three elegant colourise gold, silver, and space gray.The around prominent feature of them all is the Touch ID allowing you to use your fingerprint for your password. The iPhone 5s features advanced technologies custom designed for the iSight cameras hardware and packet. many of these features include larger pixels, larger sensor, continuous burst mode, true tone flash, auto image stabilization, slow motion video, live video zoom, square photos, panorama photos, and photo filters. An other cool feature is FaceTime, which allows you to video chat with anyone with an Apple product anywhere in the world.The iPhone 5s LTE is ultrafast allowing it to download and upload data at unthinkable speeds, the iPhone 5s has the fastest LTE speed for any smartphone. The App Store is a fabulous feature, it is easy and fun to use. When downloading an app, all you have to do is scan your finger on the internal button and voila, it starts downloading. iCloud is a big feature because it allows you to have everything you need, anywhere you need it. iCloud allows you to have the same data between different Apple devices, which comes in trained for school if you forget something on your iPad so you can bring it up on your iPhone.Software is very important for any smartphone, and with the iPhone 5s, comes iOS 7. iOS 7 is made by Apple Inc.s workers. They made it simpler, more useful, and more enjoyable while making it instantly familiar. Apple madeiOS 7 very simple and beautiful, t hey offer the right things, in the right place, at the right time. It seems as if it just works all the time, when you pick it up you already know how to use it, thats simplicity. It makes sense why they put certain features in, they put it in when its truly useful, like the notification center or the control center.It becomes more to you than just a device, iOS 7 invites that kind of connection. Interactions are dynamic, and animations are cinematic. The set out is lively and spirited in so many different ways you wouldnt have expected. Open the Weather app, for example, and youll instantly understand. Hail bounces off text, and fog passes in front of it. Storm clouds come into view with a flash of lightning. Suddenly, checking the weather is like looking out a window. iOs 7 also adds a sense of dimension with several layers on the screen tilting according to how you hold it.Apps are a very important part of Apple. It makes for a great experience and fun to use with its built in a pps made by Apple. The built in apps consist of Camera, Photos, Music, Safari, Maps, Siri, Phone, FaceTime, etc. There are a supply of 39 built in apps that are great from music to school. The App Store has the best selection of mobile apps, from Apple and third-party developers and theyre all designed specifically for iPhone. The more apps you download, the more youll realize your iPhone can do just about anything you can imagine. You can easily find apps that are relevant to your current arrangement and browse categories of apps based on your childs age and let the App Store update all your apps for you.Purchasing apps is now as easy as placing your finger on your iPhone. Say theres an app youre ready to download, with Touch ID, you simply touch the fingerprint identity sensor on the Home button, and in an instant, the App Store recognizes you and approves your transaction. So you dont need to type your Apple ID or remember your password anymore, which is amazingly easy. Shoppin g in the App Store is a great experience too because its easy to find the apps you want, and to discover new apps you didnt even know you wanted. Browse freely by category, or shop collections of apps and games handpicked by experts. Apple reviews everything on the App Store to guard against malware, so youre buying and downloading from a trusted source.Overall, the iPhone 5s has a great design, it has many amazing, new features, its new software is simple and just works and it has plenty of apps made just for the iPhone and its technological abilities. The iPhone 5s, in my opinion, not only meets, but exceeds the criteria for a good smartphone. It is the fastest, most luxurious, easiest to use, and most technologically advanced phone on the market today.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Price Controls Econ 360-002 Sonia Parsa emailprotected edu G00509808 Word Count 1540 Abstract This paper examines how, in the United States, the government imposes several forms of taxes and scathe molds and how all individuals argon inevitable to pay direct and corroborative taxes. It looks at how the approach of taxation and how the constraints of taxation on advanceds and impairment controls affect the U. S. economy. Introduction Regulations have played a spacious role in the political and economic demesne for centuries. There be various different types of regulation.One regulation that the government imposes at a reject place its tax form _or_ system of government is scathe control, which is not considered to be voluntary. Price control can play two different roles, a damage ceiling or a price floor. A price ceiling is the maximum price that can be charged in the trade for a certain good, causing shortages, and a price floor is the minimum price that can be charged in the market, which then causes surpluses. Measures are usually taken by a government under its regulatory policy to control profitss and prices in an attempt to check cost-push inflation and net profit-push inflation1.However, these policies never help the economy. Instead, it worsens the situation. Governments withal impose price controls as an indirect mechanism for taxation. The most well-known price controls enforced by the United States government today are the policy of minimum wage, rent control, and oil price control. Having enforced price controls gene yard opportunities for economy failure, i. e. shortages and surpluses, as well as opportunities within the black market, and international arbitrage. The economical PhilosophyWhen a price control is forced by the government, its usually imposed to help or protect particular parts of the population which would be treated inequitably by the unfettered price system. But one must wonder which part of the population, the co nsumers or the producers? Is it not true that the consumers always feel as if the prices of a good are much higher than their actual value, while producers always feel as if the prices are too low? Price controls are usually warrant as a way to help consumers, but whether they actually do is open to debate.Imposed price controls by the government are not simply an absolute disaster, but have resulted in dislocating many economies in the past. The key is to recognize that when governments impose price controls it does not only affect their nation, but also affects parallel imports with their trade partners because of a price discrimination, in regards to tariffs. The Economic Logic The effect of taxation and price controls on the economy vary from the decrease of the run of goods to an increase in costs and can be demonstrated by a supply-demand analysis (Figure 1).In a free market, the residual selling prices are shown by an upward slope supply curve (S) with respect to price. The maximum buying prices on the part of the consumer is then shown by a downward sloping demand curve (D) with respect to price. After a quantity of a good is acquired by a consumer, the less important the desire is than before. Therefore, the supplier has to lower the price for each unit as it is sold. Where the supply and demand curve intersects at the margin is called the equilibrium price. In a maximum price control, a deadweight loss occurs in the triangle of a, b, c. pic For example, when there is a tax imposed on a good like tobacco, there is an increase in the price of the product. This is called minimum price control and the price is not legally allowed to fall below the minimum. This shifts the supply curve of the product to the left. In other words, there are fewer goods available at the same prices than there were before. There is then a decline in the quantity demanded and a new equilibrium amidst demand and supply is reached. On the other hand when price controls are imposed there is an artificial decline in the prices.At the lower prices, a higher quantity is demanded but the production is insufficient to fulfill that demand and causes a shortage. We can also use the supply-demand analysis to dissect the labor market when a wage-control is placed by the government (shown in Figure 2). By establishing a minimum-wage law, it mandates a price floor above the equilibrium wage therefore, the rate of unemployment among unskilled workers increases. When wages increase, a greater number of workers are willing to work while only a small number of jobs will be available at the higher wage.Companies can be more selective in whom they choose to employ causing the least skilled and in produce to be excluded. pic Figure 2 assumes that workers are willing to work for more hours if paid a higher wage. We graph this relationship with the wage on the vertical axis of rotation and the quantity of workers on the horizontal axis. Combining the demand and supply cu rves for labor allows us to examine the effect of the minimum wage. We will start by presume that the supply and demand curves for labor will not change as a result of raising the minimum wage. This assumption has been questioned.If no minimum wage is in place, workers and employers will continue to adjust the quantity of labor supplied according to price until the quantity of labor demanded is equal to the quantity of labor supplied, reaching equilibrium price, where the supply and demand curves intersect. Evidence- Minimum hire Basic theory says that raising the minimum wage, which is a type of price-control, helps workers whose wages are raised, and hurts people who are not hired because companies cut back on employment. The very first federal minimum wage laws were imposed under the National Recovery Administration.The National industrial Recovery Act, which became law on June 16, 1933, established industrial minimum wages for 515 classes of labor. Over 90 percent of the minim um wages were hard-boiled at between 30 and 40 cents per hour. 2 C. F. Roos, who was the director of research at the NRA at that time, estimated that by reason of the minimum wage provisions of the codes, about 500,000 Negro workers were on backup man in 1934. Roos added that a minimum wage definitely causes the displacement of the young, inexperienced worker and the old worker. 3 By imposing minimum wage rate, free arrive in the labor market is shattered. A firm is no longer allowed to pay below the minimum and the laborer cannot accept anything below the minimum that has been set as well. The free-market allows inexperienced workers to obtain entry-level positions, which gives them on the job training, by working for less. With the imposed wage-control, if the monetary compensation falls below minimum, the trade-off becomes illegal which is a direct violation of a workers liberty to free contract.Thomas Rustici, in his book about minimum wage, makes an excellent point when he states In nearly every case it was found that the net employment effects and labor-force participation rates were negatively related to changes in the minimum wage. In the face of 50 years of evidence, the question is no longer if the minimum wage law creates unemployment, but how much current or future increases in the minimum wage will adversely affect the labor market? 4For years we have witnessed the effects of what minimum wages execute, yet we continue to conduct the same mistakes. death Obligatory price controls by the government are not only an absolute disaster, but have resulted in dislocating many economies all over the world for thousands of years5. As economic history has shown us, price controls being effective in a free competitive market are very rare. We either experience shortages or surpluses as a result. Who wins and who loses with an imposed price control?Setting a price control in one country affects other countries close to it as well due to parallel imports and personal trafficking. Prices are not just numbers to a free competitive market they are the panorama of the value the supplier sets, no matter how subjective it may be. To regulate or to impose a price control, like any form of regulation, is unconstitutional. In some cases, it either violates the 5th amendment and/or 14th amendment. Price controls, wage controls, and money controls are really people controls. Regimentation at its worst- that is what a socialist shogunate is all about.I believe that the free market has its own way of equalizing the economy and when the government interferes and sets price ceiling or price floor, it causes a funny farm within our economy. Regardless if it results in a dead weight loss or a shortage, the consequences can sometimes be more destructive in the long run. Even if a government believes that price controls are set and affect only their country, it does not it affects every nation that does any trade with them, exports or imports. The appeal of price controls is understandable.Even though they fail to protect many consumers and hurt others, controls hold out the promise of protecting groups that are particularly distressed to meet price increases. However, when the government has proposed a control, there is a lag in time, causing an economy to become more impaired. References Barfield, C. E. and Groombridge, M. A. The Economic Case for secure and Owner Control over Parallel Imports. Journal of World Intellectual Property, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 903-939 Benjamin M. Anderson, Economics and the Public Welfare A Financial and Economic History of the United States, 1914-1946 (Indianapolis Liberty Press, 1979), p. 36. Cambridge Pharma Consultancy. Pricing and Reimbursement examine 2003. Cambridge, UK IMS Health-Management Consulting, 2004. Gas Fever Happiness Is a Full Tank. Times Magazine 18 Feb. 1974. 19 June 2009 . Grossman, Gene M. , and Edwin L-C Lai. Parallel imports and price controls. RAND Journal of Economic s 2nd ser. 39 (2008) 378-402. Princeton. Web. 8 Dec. 2009. . Richard M. Alson, J. R. Kearl, and Michael B. Vaughan, Is There a Consensus Among Economists in the 1990s? American Economic Review 82, no. 2 (1992) 203209. Rustici, Thomas. Public Choice View of Minimum Wage. Cato Journal, 5. 1) Spring/Summer 1985 114. ISSN 0273-3072 Steenhuysen, Julie. Drug price controls may shorten lives report Reuters. argument & Financial News, Breaking US & International News Reuters. com. 16 Dec. 2008. Web. 8 Dec. 2009. . The Power of Oil The Arab Oil Weapon and the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, and the United States Roy Licklider International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 32, no 2 (Jun. , 1988), pp. 214 1 Grossman, Gene M. , and Edwin L-C Lai. Parallel imports and price controls. RAND Journal of Economics 2nd ser. 39 (2008) 378-402. Princeton. Web. 8 Dec. 009. . 2 Leverett Lyon, et al. The National Recovery Administration An Analysis and Appraisal (New York Da Capo Press, 1972 ). pp. 318-19. 3 Benjamin M. Anderson, Economics and the Public Welfare A Financial and Economic History of the United States, 1914-1946 (Indianapolis Liberty Press, 1979), p. 336. 4 Rustici, Thomas. Public Choice View of Minimum Wage. Cato Journal, 5. (1) Spring/Summer 1985 105. ISSN 0273-3072 5 Barfield, C. E. and Groombridge, M. A. The Economic Case for Copyright and Owner Control over Parallel Imports. Journal of World Intellectual Property, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 903-939
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
There ar numerous cultural differences in our societies as a result of the numerous respective(a) nicetys that people belong to. Each culture has its deliver ways of doing things with different cultural norms, values, perceptions, as hygienic as behaviors. People from indisputable cultures exit do the values, norms and perceptions that their cultures belief in and therefore result end up having difficulties when interacting with people from different cultures who provide have differing cultural norms, values and perceptions.These cultural differences ar manifested in the browseplace as different people from different cultures come together to sound together for the common goal of the institution or arranging they work for. Since our cultural values and norms influence our individual understandings and perceptions, people will react differently towards events and circumstances that could occur within us and in the environment. These differences in perceptions will ligh t upon how employees within an presidential term will interact with to each whizz new(prenominal) and work in harmony so as to satisfy the needs of the organizations stakeholders.As much(prenominal)(prenominal), cultural differences ar a major concern for man climb onrs within organizations as they could expedite the organization achieve its objectives or hinder it from achieving them. The objectives of an organization are set in place by its stakeholders who have invested in the organization in wizard way or the other and expect to crystalise from much(prenominal) an investment in future. It is therefore the responsibility of managers to find a way in which the employees within an organization can work together in a seamless manner despite their differences in culture so as to ensure the organization operates continually for the common good of all stakeholders.The joined States Postal work The Postal Service is an agency authorized by the constitution of the linked Sta tes and is responsible for the provision of postal proceedss to the whole of the United States. Established in 1775 in Philadelphia by Benjamin Franklin through the enactment of a decree passed by the second continental congress, it experienced minimal harvest-home and was later transformed in to its current form as an independent organization through the signing of the postal reorganization act of 1970 by chairman Nixon.As an independent organization, the postal serve well is self sufficient and does not rely on taxpayers money for its operations. The Postal Services foreign mission is to offer the American people with trusted wide-reaching postal services that are at affordable prices. As such, the Postal Service is the only delivery service within the United States with the responsibility of providing all of the various features of a universal postal service at reasonably priced rates. The Postal Service conveys about 660 billion mails to about 142 million delivery spot aro und the United States.Although the postal service enjoys a monopoly as contained in Article I, (8), (7) of the Constitution that grants the Postal Service with the special right to make delivery of letters in addition to the power to restrict the access to mailbox that are exclusively meant for mail. Its major competitors are United Parcel Service and FedEx. The postal service manages 32,741 post offices within the United States with a labor force of about 656,000 employees. Cultural differences of management and how they affect the US Postal ServiceThe United States is a country that is full of cultural diversity with different cultural practices ground on the numerous ethnic groups that live in the United States. The employees working in the postal service are drawn from these different cultural groups. As such, managers at the postal service have to deal with these differences effectively so as to ensure continues success of the organization. In doing so, managers need to be aw are of and understand the seven dimensions of culture substantial by Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner detailed in their book Riding the Waves of Culture Understanding renewing in Global Business.Below is a discussion of these seven dimensions. Universalism v/s Particularism This dimension is based on the view of how a culture perceives rules and relationships. Cultures that embrace universalism hold the belief that general rules, values, codes, norms and standards take preference over other particular needs, claims of friendship and other relations. In a society that is universalistic, the rules commonly apply equally to all of the members of the universe (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998).Exceptions to these rules are deemed as to weaken them. Universalism is based on finding rules that take a broad and general picture. In the event that there lacks a rule that fits for accomplishing something, universalism advocates for taking the alternative of establishing the mo st seize rule. Cultures that embrace Particularism perceive the ideal culture as one that is based on human friendship, and intimate relationships . People in these cultures view the spirit of the natural law as being more significant than the letter of the law.This has the effect that when the rules within a culture take a perfect fit, people in such a culture will judge the case based on the advantages of the law instead of attempting to force the rule to fit. Rules and regulations within particularistic cultures merely systematise how people are supposed to relate to one another. Individualism v/s Communitarianism This dimension is based on the view of how members of a culture functions, whether in groups or as individuals. Individualism has a basis on rights that appertain to an individual.This is usually experienced in communities that have loose ties connecting their members resulting in an expectation of individuals to run into after themselves. Individualism is aimed at g iving individuals the right to own(prenominal) space as well as the freedom of doing things as per individual liking (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998). It permits each individual to develop or fail on an individual basis, as well as perceiving group-focus as striping the person of their absolute rights. Individualistic cultures are more egotistical and give emphasis to their personal goals.People resulting from individualistic cultures have a propensity of thinking only on personal basis. Communitarianism or collectivism is based on rights that appertain to a group. Collective cultures usually place a lot of emphasize on groups and are more relate with the whole rather than on the single individual. Harmony as well as loyalty within a group are very absolute and ought to be maintained always (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998). Confrontations of any kind are highly avoided with people using expressions and phrases that would describe an argument in less negative manner. bywor d no to others is considered to be wrong and deemed as a way of destroying the harmony found within these groups. Neutral v/s Emotional Emotional or neutral perspectives are used in the description of how cultures articulate their emotions. Emotional cultures articulate their emotions in a natural way (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998). This is witnessed in reactions that occur directly through verbal and/or non-verbal means such as mimic as well as body signals. Members of the emotional culture unlike those in the neutral culture display a tendency of overreaction creating scenes.Emotional cultures are usually focused on the individual and rarely on the object or position of discussion. It is considered to be alright for one to use emotional intelligence when making decisions. It is also okay for people to show various forms of physical interlocutor while in public and during the communication process. The neutral culture tends to avoid displaying emotions publically. This is b ased on the fact that neutral cultures do not reveal what they are thinking in a way that is more precise as well as direct (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998).This is an aspect that has the likelihood of leading to misunderstandings. This is because emotions of a authentic kind may not necessarily demonstrate a certain situation. Neutral cultures usually appear to be rather reserved, an aspect that cannot be viewed as an indication of their disinterest or boredom. This appearance of reservation is based on lack of emotional tone. On a general perspective they harbor feelings of innervation over contact in public resulting in a mode of communication that is more subtle thus making it hard for members of another culture to understand.Specific vs. diffuse Specific cultures are those that usually have a small area reserved for privacy and its separated from the public keep. People in these societies have many interactions with the outside world and are constantly invited in such a ctivities such as socializing in various areas that involve many people. People from these cultures have a rather small derive of privacy preferring to share there interests with others who are within their groups of socialization (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998).People from such a culture deal with unique(predicate)s and will view the whole as a sum of these specific separate. The life of an individual is divided into several specific parts and one deals with one part at a age. Conversely, diffuse cultures are usually concerned with maintaining peoples privacy. People in these cultures will avoid any kind of confrontations in the public and have a high degree of privacy preferring to share just a small amount of their private life with other people especially strangers (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998).People from diffuse cultures usually start with the whole before going down to the various parts that make it up. Each of the parts is viewed in the viewpoint of the whole total with all of these parts being related to one another. These people prefer attributes and behaviors that help build trust and honesty fostering the building of strong relationships. Achievement vs. ascription This dimension is concerned with the status accorded to individuals within cultures. In cultures that are exercise oriented, the status of an individual is based on the accomplishments that one has achieved and accomplished.Individuals from these cultures gain their status from the various things that they have accomplished on their own (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998). A person with such a status has to show prove of what he or she is worth with the various powerful positions within the culture being accorded to people who have certain accomplishments. In cultures that are ascription oriented, the status of an individual is based on the groups that one is associated with. In ascriptive societies, individuals gain their status mainly through birth, gender, wealth, or age (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998).A person who has an ascribed status does not necessarily have to accomplish something so as to preserve his status since his or her status is accorded based on his or her being. Sequential vs. synchronic This dimension is concerned with the attitude of a culture towards time. People who are from sequential cultures tend to carry out one thing at a time in a sequential manner . They examine time as distinct, and made up of consecutive divisions which are both tangible and divisible (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998).People from these cultures strongly prefer to plan for their time and will keep to these plans once they made them so as to attending in implementation. Any time commitments that one might have are usually taken seriously and staying on schedule is considered an important aspect of time management. Sequential people in particular place a lot of importance on the value of completing of tasks. Conversely, people from cultures that are synchronic usually perform several tasks at a time.These cultures view time is a constant flow that allows many things and tasks to be carried out simultaneously (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998). Time is perceived as a force that one can not be able to contain or control. Time is also regarded as flexible as well as intangible. Time commitments are often desirable but not absolute with plans that people could be having being easily changed. Internal vs. outer control This dimension is concerned with the attitude of a culture towards the environment. In internal cultures, people usually posses a mechanistic outlook of temper.They perceive nature as an intricate machine and which can be directed if one has the correct expertise needed to do so. People from these societies do not confide in the existence of luck or any form of predestination (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998). These people are directed towards the inside as ones personal decision is usually deemed to be t he starting position for each action that they will do. They also gestate that one can live the kind of life that he or she wants to live if that are in a position to take advantage of the numerous opportunities that might come on the way.In addition, they believe that man is capable of dominating nature if he wishes to do so. . In external cultures, people usually posses an organic outlook of nature. They perceive that mankind is one of the forces of nature and should therefore operate in one accord and harmoniously with the rest of the environment. These cultures hold the believe that man should subdue to nature as well as get along with the other forces existing within the environment (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998).These people do not believe in their ability of shaping their own destiny but rather hypothesize that nature moves in rather mysterious ways hence one can not never dwell what is going to happen in the future. As such, their actions are directed externally to t he environment and are adapted to the external circumstances surrounding them. Conclusion ground on these seven dimensions, the American culture is individualistic, achievement, emotional, internal, sequential, universalistic, and specific.These dimensions have several implications that managers need to consider in order to make sure that the employees are able to work in a manner that benefits the organization as well as themselves especially in a large organization such as the postal service that employs over 600, 000 employees. In addition, due to the cultural diversity present in the United States and the growth of globalization, there are numerous citizens from different cultures in the United States that do not follow these seven dimensions of the American culture and therefore follow different aspects of the seven dimensions.With the postal service being a national agency that offers employment to all citizens irrespective of their cultural backgrounds, managers need to ensu re that the employees are able to work in a manner that benefits the organization. This will require the managers to build cultural understanding through create awareness of cultural differences. Educating the employees on the various strengths and limitations of different cultures within the workplace Educating the employees on the make skills the impact of cultural differences within the workplace Educating the employees on various adaptive behaviors that could help them to realize valuable results within a setting with cultural differences. Building unity and consistency through team working Developing a shared understanding and vision between the employees Establishing effective communication channels amongst the employees to facilitate quality exchange of ideas between themselves Establishing feedback mechanisms aimed at reviewing and improving the employees awareness of cultural differences.In addition, the managers need to come up with strategies that will enable the postal service to compete effectively. This will require them to actively develop A shared understanding of the organizations goals and objectives An acknowledgment of the significance of diversity in contributing towards expertise. A clear and shared comprehension of the role of professional pooling of skills and knowledge within the organization. Reference Trompenaars, F. , & Hampden-Turner, C. (1998). Riding the Waves of Culture Understanding Cultural Diversity in Global Business. New York McGraw Hill.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Sovietisation of east Europe 1945-1968 World war two saw a grand alliance of Britain, the States and Russia created in order to defeat their common enemy, Adolf Hitler. In pursuit of this goal they attended a number of conferences to plan their attacks and to decide on the future of deport war Europe. At Teheran in 1943 Churchill voiced concerns about the post-war situation in Eastern Europe, he was afraid that victory over the Nazis would leave the USSR in control of Eastern Europe.To prevent this from happening he proposed that the Anglo-Americans open up a second front in the Balkans. Stalin rejected this proposal as he knew it would thwart his plan to extend his sphere of influence in Eastern Europe after the war, and insisted the second front be opened in France. The war in Europe was nearly over when the allied leaders met at Yalta. While there was general agreement on how to deal with Germany, Churchill and Stalin had polar ideas when it came to Poland.Stalin wanted the com munist-dominated Lubin committee to form the new government, whereas Churchill spoke out in favour of the London based Polish government in exile. It was agreed that a compact government would be created but no decision was made on where Polands borders would be drawn after the war. The question of Poland was raised once more at Potsdam. Stalin got two leaders to accept the Lubin government but he promised that after the war free elections would be held. Moscow saw control of Eastern Europe as essential to soviet security.Stalin had lived through two German encroachments of his country and he was determined that the USSR would never again face the threat of invasion from the West. He believed that if the counties to the west of the USSR were friendly they would act as a buffer zone in the midst of the USSR and Western Europe. However as the grand alliance had disintegrated and the moth-eaten War intensified Stalin presses on with his plan which usually involved three stages. In P oland, after the war, sixteen of the twenty five members of the Polish government were communists.This resulted in an intense power struggle between the communists and the more popular Peasants Party and Socialist Party. While Stalin had promised that the elections would be free and fair, they were anything but. In the 1947 election the communists won 80% of the vote and a one- caller communist state was created. The Catholic Church became the main opposition voice in Poland with Cardinal Wyszynski imprisoned for his support of resistance groups. Despite this, the sovietisation of Poland lasted 40 years.In Hungary the communists initially formed besides a small part of a national government after the war. In the 1945 election the communists only won 17% of the vote while the Smallholders Party won 60%. However, under pressure from the Soviet Union the PM Tidly was forced to appoint a communist Rakosi as his deputy and Rajk as minister of the interior, latter position meant that th e communists controlled the police and the legal system and they used this to terrorise members of the opposition parties.In the 1947 election the communists won 24% of the vote but by merging with the social Democrats they were able to get the Parliament to pass a new constitution in 1949. The coalition government in Czechoslovakia lasted longer than in other eastern bloc countries. The democratic parties held the majority in this government with Benes as president and Jan Masaryk as unknown Minister. However as had happened in other eastern bloc countries a communist, Gottwald, was appointed PM and they also controlled the Ministry of the Interior.Benes hoped to establish Czechoslovakia as a bridge between East and West, capable of maintaining contact with both sides and so in 1948 hoped to participate in the Marshall Plan. This resulted in a coup by the communist party with the help of the red army and on the 9th of May a new constitution was introduced which created a soviet-st yle government. Stalin proceeded to tighten his grip on East Germany and trouble erupted in berlin in 1930 when the government demaned extra productivity from the workers.
Monday, May 20, 2019
Cells, Cell Division, and Cell Specialization Fundament eithery Different Types of Cell Prokaryotic Cell- single stalled solely desoxyribonucleic acid+ structure (before nucleus) E. g. zygote- eat up desoxyribonucleic acid Eukaryotic Cell-multi- carreled (after nucleus) ProkaryotesEukaryotes DNAIn nucleoid regionWithin membrane-bound nucleus ChromosomesSingle, circularMultiple, linear OrganellesNoneMembrane-bound organelles SizeUsually smallerUsually larger- 50 times OrganizationUsually single- cadreedOften multicellular Sexual ReproductionNoneMeiosis Combination of DMA from 2 cells 3 postulates of cell theory (Created by Schleiden, Schwann) . All living things are composed of cells 2. All cells from pre-existing cells (e. g. through cell division) 3. Cells are the base functional units of living organisms Functions of organelles OrganelleIn business termsFunctions CytoplasmPlace to work-suspends organelles -stores substances that are needed for later -many chemical reactions take place CytoskeletonPlace to work-transports vesicles and organelles -determines cell shape E. g. while blood cell examples it to reach and swallow bacterium Ribosome/ EnzymesWorkers- creates proteins that take down the ER for change NucleusThe boss-protects DNA chromosome large continuous piece of DNA, containing many genes -gene many sets of instructions on a chromosome, make functional products -nucleolus region of DNA that codes ribosomes -nuclear pore holes in a nuclear membrane Endoplasmic Reticulum upcountry transportation-transports materials throughout the cell with its branching tubes and pockets -brain assists with production, release of hormone -muscles involved with muscle contraction Golgi ApparatusExports transportation-collect and process materials to be re beard from the cell -make and secrete mucus Cell MembraneSecurity/ export/import-support the cell allow some substances to enter while keeping others out (semi-permeable) Chloroplasts Cash flow-absorb light ene rgy for photosynthesis? the process of converting carbon dioxide and irrigate in glucose and oxygen using chlorophyll MitochondriaSpender of cash-make energy available to the cell -contains enzymes? convert stored energy into a advantageously usable piss ( cellular respiration) LysosomesWaste removal/ recycling-digestive system of cell? break down waste from some(prenominal) inside and outside the cell Vacuoles Storage-contain substance, removing unwanted maintaining internal turgor pressure within the cellDifferentiating between plant and carnal organelles AnimalsPlants Lysosome present in all animal cells but not allCell Wall provides structural support, prevents cells from rupturing, outside of cell membrane Centrioles involved in cell divisionChloroplasts absorb light energy for photosynthesis? the process of converting carbon dioxide and water in glucose and oxygen using chlorophyll Vacuole a portion of the cell membrane may stoop inside out to public figure a vacuole to digest the engulfed objectVacuole controls turgor pressure, much larger Reasons who cells must divide 1.Reproduction -all cells use division to reproduce -single celled organisms split to form new organism (asexual reproduction) -multi celled organisms 2 parental cells combine to form new organism (sexual reproduction) 2. Growth -transport of nutrients and waste across the cell limits cell size (diffusion from highly severe areas to lower concentrated areas) -movement of chemical occurs by diffusion? cells get too large, chemical and water backsidet move fast - save way to get bigger and still function properly is to hyperkinetic syndrome more cells 3. Repair/Regeneration -needed to stay alive E. g. kin cells replaced daily, red blood cells replaced ever great hundred days, breaking bones or cuts and blisters new cells needed to fill the gaps -replaces lost cells Why do cells distinguish? Cells have exact same DNA in its nucleus? location and chemical messages from other cells bring out certain genes. As a result each cell has a unique function in which they must perform Types of stem cells Undifferentiated Totipotent-embryonic stem cells E. g. zygote ?Completely undifferentiated E. g. cells from outset few divisions after fertilization ? Can become any type ? Destroys the embryo when collected Pluripotent- gravid stem cells E. g. trophoblast Already partially differentiated and located in specific proboscis tissues E. g. bone marrow, umbilical cord cord ? Can become many types, but not all Multipotent ? Can only differentiate into a limited range of cell types malignant neoplastic disease- What and how it forms What When genes that control the duration of interphase get mutations (random changes in DNA code) that causes a cell to grow out of control. As a result it forms a tumor (lumps of cells) that doesnt fully differentiate or function properly, using valuable resources Tumor Types 1. Benign (non-cancerous) cells dont interfere or invade other cel ls, but large masses can crowd nigh tissues 2.Malignant (cancerous) interferes or invades other cells, nearby tissues and potentially mestasize Mestasize process of cancer cells dividing and going to other places in the body by breaking away from an invasive primary tumor, forming additional secondary tumors Causes of Cancer 1. Cellular DNA is copied improperly during S phase of cell steering wheel 2. Environmental mutations caused by carcinogens (E. g. chemicals, energy, some viruses) Methods of Screening Cancer -Pap smear (cervical cancer) -Mammogram (breast cancer) -Colonoscopy (colorectal cancer) -PSA blood test (prostate cancer) -Self-ExaminationBiopsy removal of body tissue for laboratory examination (E. g. taken with endoscope) Methods of analyze cancer -Endoscopy Camera and tissue extractor -X-ray uses radiations to get images of tissues -Ultrasound uses sound waves to create images of soft tissues -CT/Cat conk out Computer Axial Tomography creates . D images MRI Scan Ma gnetic Resonance Imaging creates . D image using magnetic fields and radio waves and computer analysis Different methods of takeing cancer -Surgery physically removing -Chemotherapy treating with a series of drugs that target rapidly dividing cells -Radiation killing cancer cells with target radiationBiophotonics uses beams of light to detect and treat cancer Different parts of the cell cycle- Description Interphase -period before a cell divides -longest part of the cycle (3/4 of its time) -cell grows, performs daily functions and chromosomes are duplicated S-Stage of Interphase Strands of the SNA are copied but remain attacted to the original protein Mitosis process by which all cells divide (to divide up the DNA that has been copied and create 2 identical cells each with a complete set of chromosomes Prophase duplicated chromosomes shorten and thicken (chromatin begins to condense by supercoiling, wrapping around protein balls -nuclear membrane starts to dissolve) -spindle fibres (made of microtubles) form -centrioles move to opposite ends (poles of the cell) Metaphase -double stranded chromosomes line up along the equator (middle of the cell) Anaphase -each double stranded chromosome splits and the single stranded chromosomes function along the spindle fibres to opposite ends of the cell -sister chromatids get pulled apartTelophase -chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the cell and become long-acting and thinner -new nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes -spindle fibres disappear -supercoiled DNA begins to uncoil to form chromatin again Cytokinesis -division of cytoplasm and cellular organelles (pinching off to form individual cells) Plant cells grow a new cell plate built with proteins to form a new membrane) Result mother cell splits in half to form 2 daughter cells Drawing the cell cycle
Sunday, May 19, 2019
The nationalgalleryofart.gov website features an artist by the name of Johannes Vermeer. Johannes Vermeers Woman Holding a Balance exhibit consists of that single art piece, which was created in 1664 with oil on canvas. This palpableistic piece of art shows a woman memory a residual, plain lost in her thoughts. In the background is a photograph of The function Judgment. Vermeer made it heavy(p) to perceive what the woman may be fit, whether it is the gold chains and the strings of pearls that are lying on the table in front of her, or if its her thoughts that she is trying to balance out. That idea is up to the audition to decipher and debate.Looking at the basic characteristics determines the artists stylus. Vermeer distinctly places background lines that fade into the vanishing which happens to be the womans finger, which helps in balancing the painting. In another attempt to balance the painting, Vermeer placed the balance even precisely in the middle of the painting. He also makes the woman a positive shape, subject matter she is at the for-front of the painting, while the work of art and jewelry are perceived as negative shapes, kernel they are in the background. Vermeer also uses light to enhance this painting. The light seems to aggrandize the woman, making her the focal point of this work. He uses different types of paints to create wool like texture of the womans orange dress.He understood the concepts of different colors for example, using the lighter color orange dress under the murky blue shawl, gave him a chance to lighten the painting. The size of the painting behind the woman suggests that the woman is small, rattling making everything in the work smaller than it. Implied motion is shown in the painting also, by the woman prop the balance, in the process of waiting for it to reach equality. By combining these characteristics, one can determine the style Johannes Vermeer uses in this painting. Realism is the style of this work. Beca use everything in this painting could have really happened in his time of the seventeenth century, concludes the fact that the style is realism.In this work of art, I see a pregnant woman holding a balance contemplating something. I can be certain she is holding a balance, scarce it is what she is balancing could be up for debate. I think she is balancing her thoughts rough the future of being a raw(a) mom vs. just a wife, or maybe the thought her religion and what is to come of it. The painting of The Last Judgment inquires this thought process. These symbols that Vermeer uses serve to support the message being conceived as the balancing of life-what religion holds for her, and what the real world holds for her.Vermeers biography explains that he grew up, settled, and died in Delft. He was raised as a Protestant, but before marrying he converted to Catholicism. In the 1600s religion was a big part of life, which supports the logical system about the symbolism, and their meaning of the painting. His culture is relayed in the painting, by the c mete outhing the woman is wearing, and the artifact she is holding. His style seemed to be realistic historical or realistic religious. This fact is also supports the idea of this painting being about religion.The art of the 17th century was Baroque which communicated religious themes. The Catholic Church was a big forge at this time, and seemed to encourage art relating to religion. I found that minute details in a painting can help one understand it better. The biography of the artist can help a lot also. When whole toneing at a piece of art , one has to literally pick it apart, and then look at it all together because the smallest thing could change the meaning being portrayed. The most important reading I embarked on was everyone has a different opinion of what a painting is implying, and no one is wrong. whole shebang CitedJohannes Vermeer, Woman Holding a Balance, c. 1664, National Gallery of Art, Widener Col lection