Saturday, December 28, 2019

What Does Context Mean to Archaeologists

An important concept in archaeology, and one that isnt given a lot of public attention until things go awry, is that of context.Context, to an archaeologist, means the place where an artifact is found. Not just the place, but the soil, the site type, the layer the artifact came from, what else was in that layer. The importance of where an artifact is found is profound. A site, properly excavated, tells you about the people who lived there, what they ate, what they believed, how they organized their society. The whole of our human past, particularly prehistoric, but historic period too, is tied up in the archaeological remnants, and it is only by considering the entire package of an archaeological site that we can even begin to understand what our ancestors were about. Take an artifact out of its context and you reduce that artifact to no more than pretty. The information about its maker is gone.Which is why archaeologists get so bent out of shape by looting, and why we are so skeptic al when, say, a carved limestone box is brought to our attention by an antiques collector who says it was found somewhere near Jerusalem.br/>The following parts of this article are stories which attempt to explain the context concept, including how crucial it is to our understanding of the past, how easily it is lost when we glorify the object, and why artists and archaeologists dont always agree. An article by Romeo Hristov and Santiago Genovà ©s published in the journal Ancient Mesoamerica made the international news in February 2000. In that very interesting article, Hristov and Genovà ©s reported on the rediscovery of a tiny Roman art object recovered from a 16th century site in Mexico.The story is that in 1933, Mexican archaeologist Jose Garcà ­a Payà ³n was excavating near Toluca, Mexico, at a site continuously occupied beginning somewhere between 1300-800 B.C. until 1510 A.D. when the settlement was destroyed by the Aztec emperor Moctecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (aka Montezuma). The site has been abandoned since that date, although some cultivation of nearby farm fields has taken place. In one of the burials located at the site, Garcà ­a Payà ³n found what is now agreed to be a terracotta figurine head of Roman manufacture, 3 cm (about 2 inches) long by 1 cm (about a half inch) across. The burials were dated on the basis of the artifact assemblage--this was before radiocar bon dating was invented, recall--as between 1476 and 1510 A.D.; Cortes landed at Veracruz Bay in 1519.br/>Art historians securely date the figurine head as having been made about 200 A.D.; thermoluminescence dating of the object provides a date of 1780  ± 400 b.p., which supports the art historian dating. After several years of banging his head on academic journal editorial boards, Hristov succeeded in getting Ancient Mesoamerica to publish his article, which describes the artifact and its context. Based on the evidence provided in that article, there seems to be no doubt that the artifact is a genuine Roman artifact, in an archaeological context that predates Cortes.That is pretty darn cool, isnt it? But, wait, what exactly does it mean? Many stories in the news ran amok on this, stating that this is clear evidence for pre-Columbian trans-Atlantic contact between the Old and New Worlds: A Roman ship blown off course and run aground on the American shore is what Hristov and Genovà ƒ ©s believe and thats certainly what the news stories reported. But is that the only explanation?No, its not. In 1492 Columbus landed on Watling Island, on Hispaniola, on Cuba. In 1493 and 1494 he explored Puerto Rico and the Leeward islands, and he founded a colony on Hispaniola. In 1498 he explored Venezuela; and in 1502 he reached Central America. You know, Christopher Columbus, pet navigator of Queen Isabella of Spain. You knew, of course, that there are numerous Roman-period archaeological sites in Spain. And you probably also knew that one thing the Aztecs were well known for was their incredible trading system, run by the merchant class of pochteca. The pochteca were an extremely powerful class of people in preColumbian society, and they were very interested in traveling to distant lands to find luxury goods to trade back home.So, how hard is it to imagine that one of the many colonists dumped by Columbus on the American shores carried a relic from home? And that relic found its way into the trade network, and thence to Toluca? And a better question is, why is it so much easier to believe that a Roman ship was wrecked on the shores of the country, bringing the inventions of the west to the New World?br/>Not that this isnt a convoluted tale in and of itself. Occams Razor, however, doesnt make simplicity of expression (A Roman ship landed in Mexico! vs Something cool collected from the crew of a Spanish ship or an early Spanish colonist got traded to the residents of the town of Toluca) a criteria for weighing arguments.But the fact of the matter is, a Roman galleon landing on the shores of Mexico would have left more than such a tiny artifact. Until we actually find a landing site or a shipwreck, Im not buying it.The news stories have long disappeared from the Internet, except for the one in the Dallas Observer called Romeos Head that David Meadows was kind enough to point out. The original scientific article describing the find and its location can be found here: Hristov, Romeo and Santiago Genovà ©s. 1999 Mesoamerican evidence of Pre-Columbian transoceanic contacts. Ancient Mesoamerica 10:207-213. The recovery of a Roman figurine head from a late-15th/early-16th century site near Toluca, Mexico is only interesting as an artifact if you know, without a doubt, that it came from a North American context prior to the conquest by Cortes.Which is why, on a Monday evening in February of 2000, you might have heard archaeologists all over North America screaming at their television sets. Normally, most archaeologists I know love Antiques Roadshow. For those of you who havent seen it, the PBS television show brings a group of art historians and dealers to various places in the world, and invites residents to bring in their heirlooms for valuations. Its based on a venerable British version of the same name. While the shows have been described by some as get-rich-quick programs feeding into the booming western economy, they are entertaining to me because the stories associated with the artifacts are so interesting. People bring in an old lamp that their grandmother had been given as a wed ding present and always hated, and an art dealer describes it as an art-deco Tiffany lamp. Material culture plus personal history; thats what archaeologists live for.Unfortunately, the program turned ugly on the February 21st, 2000 show from Providence, Rhode Island. Three utterly shocking segments were aired, three segments that brought us all screaming to our feet. The first involved a metal detectorist who had looted a site in South Carolina and brought in the slave identification tags he had found. In the second segment, a footed vase from a precolumbian site was brought in, and the appraiser pointed out evidence that it had been recovered from a grave. The third was a stoneware jug, looted from a midden site by a guy who described excavating the site with a pickaxe. None of the appraisers said anything on television about the potential legalities of looting sites (particularly the international laws concerning the removal of cultural artifacts from central American graves) let alone the wanton destruction of the past, instead putting a price on the goods and encouraging the looter to find more.br/>The Antiques Roadshow was deluged with complaints from the public, and on their website they issued an apology and a discussion of the ethics of vandalism and looting.Who owns the past? I ask that every day of my life, and hardly ever is the answer a guy with a pickaxe and spare time on his hands. You idiot! You moron!As you can tell, it was an intellectual debate; and like all discussions where the participants secretly agree with each other, it was well-reasoned and polite. We were arguing in our favorite museum, Maxine and I, the art museum on the university campus where we both worked as clerk typists. Maxine was an art student; I was just starting in archaeology. That week, the museum announced the opening of a new display of pots from around the world, donated by the estate of a world-traveling collector. It was irresistible to us two groupies of historical art, and we took a long lunch to go take a peek.I still remember the displays; room after room of fabulous pots, of all sizes and all shapes. Many, if not most, of the pots were ancient, pre-Columbian, classic Greek, Mediterranean, Asian, African. She went one direction, I went another; we met in the Mediterranean room.Tsk, said I, the only provenience given on any of these pots is the country of origin.Who cares? sai d she. Dont the pots speak to you?Who cares? I repeated. I care. Knowing where a pot comes from gives you information about the potter, his or her village and lifestyle, the things that are really interesting about it.What are you, nuts? Doesnt the pot itself speak for the artist? All you really need to know about the potter is right here in the pot. All his hopes and dreams are represented here.Hopes and dreams? Give me a break! How did he--I mean SHE--earn a living, how did this pot fit into society, what was it used for, thats not represented here!Look, you heathen, you dont understand art at all. Here you are looking at some of the most wonderful ceramic vessels in the world and all you can think of is what the artist had for dinner!And, I said, stung, the reason these pot have no provenience information is because they were looted or at least bought from looters! This display supports looting!What this display supports is reverence for things of all cultures! Somebody whos neve r had exposure to Jomon culture can come in here and marvel at the intricate designs, and wander out a better person for it!We may have been raising our voices slightly; the curators assistant seemed to think so when he showed us the exit.br/>Our discussion continued on the tiled patio in front, where things probably got slightly warmer, although perhaps its best not to say.The worst state of affairs is when science begins to concern itself with art, shouted Paul Klee.Art for arts sake is the philosophy of the well-fed! retorted Cao Yu.Nadine Gordimer said Art is on the side of the oppressed. For if art is freedom of the spirit, how can it exist within the oppressors?But Rebecca West rejoined, Most works of art, like most wines, ought to be consumed in the district of their fabrication.The problem has no easy resolution, for what we know about other cultures and their pasts is because the elite of western society poked their noses into places they had no business being. Its a plain fact: we cant hear other cultural voices unless we translate them first. But who says members of one culture have a right to understand another culture? And who can argue that we all arent morally obligated to try?

Friday, December 20, 2019

Plessy V Ferguson Analysis Essay - 1386 Words

Danielle Trefz HONR259N 12 April 2011 Plessy v. Ferguson In 1892, Homer Plessy, a man of 1/8th African descent, bought a first class ticket and boarded a train traveling within Louisiana. Upon discovery of his mixed heritage, the conductor ordered him to move to the designated colored car. He was arrested when he refused to move; a violation of The Separate Car Act which required separate but equal accommodations for African Americans and Whites on railroads. Thus began the fight against the idea of separate but equal. Plessy was the perfect man for this social experiment because he was so light skinned he could have passed as white. This the entire operation was choreographed and each person involved had his role in bringing†¦show more content†¦No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.† In their argument of the case, Plessy and his Lawyer argued that segregated facilities violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th amendment. As a fully participating citizen, he should not have been denied any rights of citizenship and should not have been required to give up any public rights or access. In The Atlantic World and the Road to Plessy v. Ferguson, Rebecca Scott discussed this idea of public rights[4]. For many years prior to Plessy’s arrest, this demand for civil and public rights was a crucial part of reconstruction and the beliefs of the free black population in New Orleans. These people wanted to be treated with dignity and have equal access to public accommodations and transportation. The 13th and 14th amendments had been previously argued in the Slaughterhouse(1873) and Civil Rights Cases(1883). Through the Slaughterhouse decision, the 13th Amendment was intended primarily to abolish slavery as it had been known in the United State s and anything short of involuntaryShow MoreRelatedPlessy V. Ferguson984 Words   |  4 Pagesrelevant faces of the case? 2. What issues is the court addressing? What is the legal problem? 3. What law is the court applying? 4. What is the court’s decision, analysis, and rationale? For this week, you need to find a case that deals with Due Process, the Equal Protection Clause or Delegation. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) What are the important and relevant faces of the case? The Case is based upon The Equal Protection Clause, in which, this case occurred one hundred and nineteen yearsRead MoreThe Case Of Oliver Brown V. The Board Of Education Of Topeka1991 Words   |  8 PagesThe question that this historical investigation and sources will be seeking to answer is: To what extent did the case of Oliver Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas further the progress of the civil rights movement in search of African-American equality? The first source being evaluated is â€Å"The Brown Decision: Its Long Anticipation and Lasting Influence.† This academic journal article originates from the Journal of Southern History, and is written by Linda Reed, an associate professorRead MoreThe Glory Field By Walter Dean Myers1265 Words   |  6 PagesWilliams v. Fears, a prohibitive tax was put on â€Å"emigrant agents†, effectively destroying much of black mobility (Post Civil War Restrictions on Interstate Migrations). The major case that created segregation in which the Supreme court made a â€Å"separate but equal† ruling was Plessy v. Ferguson (Plessy v. Ferguson). Homer Plessy, a man who was one-eighth black and otherwise entirely white, refused to move to the colored car of the train he was on, and was tried in front of Judge John H. Ferguson, creatingRead MoreThe Law Of The Land For 57 Years1829 Words   |  8 Pages Separate but equal. This was the law of the land for 57 years. Plessy v. Ferguson was passed in 1896. On June 7, 1892, Homer Plessy bought a first-class train ticket. Homer Plessy was seven-eighths white, and one-eighth black, but had the appearance of a white man. When he got on the train, he took a empty seat in a white-only car. Plessy was then arrested and imprisoned, he was brought to court in New Orleans and charged with violating the law of 1890 that required all railroads in a stateRead MoreAnalysis Of Paul Loeb s Soul Of A Citizen1687 Words   |  7 Pagesbut also of the entire world as well. A good citizen will stand up for what they consider important. As the quote by Giroux states, it is a responsibility to others as well, as the brave citizen is doing the entire community a favor as well. The analysis included in this paper will allow a reader to fathom what it means to bring change about, to get one’s voice heard, and to stand up for one’s beliefs, hopes and desires. This paper will be proceeded in a manner that not only summarizes the key ideasRead MoreWomen And Elective Office And Silent Covenants : Brown Vs. Board Of Education2260 Words   |  10 PagesThe author’s of Women and Elective Office and Silent Covenants: Brown v. Board of Education and the Unfulfilled Hopes for Racial Reform attempt to show the struggles toward inequality for both black ethnics in the public education sector and women pursuing a career in U.S. politics. Sue Thomas and Clyde Wilcox, the authors of Women and Elective Office exemplify some of today’s latest research surrounding women officeholders in the United States. Throughout the book, they transition from the historyRead MoreThe Power Of A Society s Justice System1581 Words   |  7 Pagesaffecting the nation’s international standing. Society’s shared understanding of values and its behaviors influenced by the Supreme Court’s rulings, while simultaneously, influen cing international interpretations of justice, are exposed through the analysis of ideological and behavioral codes. Key to the understanding of American values and the Supreme Court’s rulings is the political theory interwoven between the nation’s framework. Liberty, justice, and equality are at the heart of American democracyRead MoreJudicial Decision Making Analysis: Brown vs. Board of Education1599 Words   |  6 PagesJudicial Decision Making Analysis: Brown v. Board of Education Background In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the United States Supreme Court upheld racial segregation of passengers in railroad coaches as required by Louisiana law. Three years later the Supreme Court was asked to review its first school case dealing with equal treatment of school children. In Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education (1899) the court found that the temporary cessation of services for minority high-school childrenRead MoreThe Supreme Court, Which Does Overrule Its Precedent From1532 Words   |  7 PagesThe Supreme Court, which does overrule its precedent from time to time, does not need to do a lengthy analysis of each precedent’s viability in every case. Rather, through its certiorari jurisdiction (certiorari – an order by which a higher court reviews a decision of a lower court), it selects cases and issues that allow it to reconsider precedent on its own time. When the Court decides that a previous decision may be in jeopardy, it often asks the parties to br ief whether precedent should be overruledRead MoreThe Brown Decision : A Catalyst For Change Or A Strategic Misstep?1157 Words   |  5 PagesRosenberg believes that the Brown v. Board of Education decision did not serve as a catalyst for change in public policy as many who ascribe to the â€Å"Dynamic† view of the Court believe. Rather, he believes the push for change in public policy came from postwar economic conditions, changes in electoral bases, the migration of African Americans to more Northern States, and Cold War Era international pressure. While Rosenberg presents a strong case, I think his analysis is missing a key component: If

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Employee Retention Theories - Implementation and Analysis

Question: What is the employee retention theories? Answer: Introduction: The employee retention plays an important role in organizational development. It helps the organizational policies and practices with various strategies that also help the business to reduce the turnover rate of the employee. The employee helps in the organizational development and thus helps in the productivity of the company as well. The employee retention also helps in the growth rate of the business and helps in the advancement in the market as well. The employee retention refers to the various strategies that help in the satisfaction of the employees as well as also help to motivate employees within the workplace (Hom et al., 2012). This helps the company to reduce the turnover rate of the employee and helps in the development of the business as well. The employee retention helps the business to expand its corporate and also helps in the development of the company as a whole. The company with the effective implementation of employment retention strategy helps the employee to mot ivate more towards the company and also helps in gaining a competitive advantage by the business in the market. The strategy also helps in the employee satisfaction which further add value towards the quality of the production which help the employees more towards the company as a whole. Implementation: The employee retention within the business plays a vital role in considering the rate of attrition within the corporate as well. The company Oxfam with the effective implementation of the business plan helps the business towards the advancement by the present market (Grissom et al., 2012). The employee retention also helps the company to increase the productivity rate and helps in the organizational advancement in the international market. The company Oxfam also implements effective retention strategy which helps the employees within the workplace to get more motivated towards the company as well. The retention theories also help the company towards the business development and also help in the profitability of the corporate as well. The various strategies that include: Compensation and Rewards: The employee gets motivated towards the business through beneficial rewards and compensation. Employee commitment within Oxfam gets highly influenced through attractive wage system which helps the company to retain more loyal employees within the workplace. The compensation thus plays a vital role in attracting and motivating more employees within the corporate (Hong et al., 2012). The rewards towards the effective efforts of the employees also help the employee to get motivated towards the corporate environment which further helps in reduction of the employee retention in the business. Job Security: The job security of the employee also helps the business to gain the loyal employees within the business as a whole. This also helps the employee to motivate in the decision making process regarding the companys goal and objectives. The job security also helps in providing the psychological and socio-economic stability to the employee which further adds value towards the company to increase the retention rate of the employee within the workplace (Gerber et al., 2012). The job security also helps the employee within Oxfam to meet the satisfaction level and helps the business to retain employees as well. The job security helps the employee to implement a positive impact towards the employee which helps in the technological advancement of the corporate as a whole. Training and development: The training and development of the employee within Oxfam also help in improving the talent of the company which further adds to the increased productivity within the company as well. Successful training also helps in retention of the employee through identifying the best talent and motivating the employees according to the base of the need of the employees towards productivity (Morrison Silverman, 2012). The training and development also help in the improvement of the skills and potentiality of the employee which helps the corporate in increasing the quality of the product within the workplace. This also helps the corporate further towards the development in the market gaining competition as well. Transparent communication: The transparent communication helps the employee to build a transparency with the management which helps the corporate to avoid any conflicts between the employees within the workplace. The transparent communication also helps the employee to get motivated towards the company and helps in gaining increasing the profit margin of the company as well. The transparent communication also helps in the behavioral change of the employee of Oxfam, which helps the corporate to develop the management and helps in retention of the employee within the corporate (Farr, 2012). Reduction of Workload: The effective retention strategy also includes the reduction of workload which helps the employee to get more motivated to the business and thus helps in lowering the turnover rate of the employee (Zablah et al., 2012). Oxfam thus lowers the attrition rate through effective implementation of the work-life balance and helps in motivating more employees within the workplace as a whole. The maintenance of work balance also helps in attracting more loyal employees which further helps in the retention of the existing employees within the workplace as a whole. The retention strategy thus helps the corporate towards the employee productivity and helps in improving the economic structure of the company in the present market (Ployhart et al., 2012). Corporate Culture: The business implements corporate culture within the workplace which led towards the positive impact towards the employees. The corporate culture also helps in the improvement of the quality of the production of the employee and helps the business to develop the economic structure in the present scenario. Oxfam implements corporate culture which further help in retention of the employee and also helps in the advancement of the business in the corporate world (Boles et al., 2012). Motivation: The motivation of the employee plays an important role in considering the reduction of employee retention within the workplace. The motivation of the employee helps Oxfam to create a positive environment towards the employee and helps in the retention of loyal employees within the corporate as well. The motivation also helps the employees to drive towards the workplace and increase the rate of productivity quality within the corporate (Long etal., 2012). This helps the organization towards retention of the employee and helps to lead the business towards gaining competitive advantage. Analysis: The implementation of effective retention strategy helps the company towards the advancement and growth of the corporate in the market. The effective motivational strategy helps the employees to get more attracted towards the business and helps the corporate to lowers the retention rate as well within the workplace (App et al., 2012). The motivational strategy helps in attracting more employees and helps in lowering the attrition rate as well. This also helps the corporate to increase the productivity rate and thus helps in gaining competitive advantage in the market. Thus, Oxfam to retain more loyal employees implement effective motivation strategy that also helps the business to increase the rate of the profit margin and thus helps in the competitive advantage in the present market (Memili Welsh, 2012). The reduction of the workload also helps in the retention of the employees and thus helps in the profitability of the company in the competitive international market. The reduction of the workload also helps the employees to input more potentiality towards the corporate business and helps the business to increase the sales rate of the corporate. Oxfam implements effective strategy regarding the need of the customers and thus provide the favourable condition for the employees to reduce the work pressure within the workplace. This helps the employee to increase the quality of production and helps in the sustainability of the company in the market. The reduction also helps the employee to get satisfied with the company and helps in gaining loyal employees more towards the workplace (McCole et al., 2012). The company with the effective implementation of the strategy helps the employee as well the families get addicted towards the workplace and helps in the growth of the company in the ma rket as well. The effective implementation of the corporate culture also helps the employee to get attracted towards the corporate business and helps in having the positive impact towards the employee as a whole. The corporate culture of Oxfam also helps the company to gain positive impact towards the employee which further helps the company to retain the employees within the workplace and also helps in gaining employee satisfaction as well. The satisfaction of the employees within the workplace plays as a vital part in considering the growth rate of the company and also helps in gaining customer satisfaction towards the business success (Grant, 2012). The satisfaction level of the consumer also plays an important role towards the profit rate of the company and thus helps in gaining profitability of the business. The business helps the employee to gat attracted and thus stays within the workplace. The transparent communication also helps Oxfam to retain employees within the workplace. The communication helps the employees to create a strong bond with the management and thus help the management to avoid any type of conflicts within the workplace. This also helps the corporate to gain competitive benefit and helps in increasing the rate of profit sales in the present competitive market (Ferreira, 2012). The transparent communication also helps the employee to have positive energy within the workplace and thus helps in increasing the potentiality of the business in a present situation. Thus, the effective implementation helps the corporate to gain maximum loyalty within the workplace which also adds value towards the reputation of the business. The loyalty helps the business to gain brand value which adds as an added advantage towards the brand value of the company in the international market. The brand value also helps in the gaining the productivity of the company which further helps in the sustainability of the business as a whole. The effective implementation of the training and development helps the corporate to develop the skills of the employee and helps on improving the potentiality of the employees within the workplace. The implementation also helps in the retention of the employee and thus helps the company to stand as a leading business in the corporate world (Martin et al., 2012). Oxfam thus implements effective strategy towards the employee retention which helps the corporate to increase the productivity and also help in lowering the attrition rate of the employee as well. The training and development thus help the company towards the growth rate and also helps in motivating employees as well. Oxfam face challenges mainly regarding inequality within the workplace which affects the potentiality of the employee and thus led the business towards the increased rate of employee turnover in comparison to the market. The corporate thus implements the effective strategy regarding compensation and rewards towards the employee which help the employee further to gain motivation within the workplace as a whole. This helps the business with increased quality of production and thus led towards the improved growth rate of the company in comparison to the profit share of the market (Ferreira, 2012). The business thus helps the employee towards the development of the company and also helps in the employee retention as well. Conclusion: The employee retention of the business plays an important role in business success. The various strategies implemented by the company also help the business to retain loyal employees more within the workplace and helps in improving the potentiality of the business as well. The employee retention also helps the corporate to improve the productivity of the business which helps the corporate to add value towards the brand reputation of the company as a whole. The employee retention thus adds value also towards the consumer satisfaction and helps the business to improve the quality of the production of the business as well. The retention rate of the employee helps in improving the profitability of the company which helps in increasing the profit sales of the company in the international scenario. The retention rate also helps in leading the positive impact towards the customers and thus helps the company towards the improved productivity at a market. The employee retention thus led the b usiness towards gaining competitive sustainability in the market and helps in increasing the profitability as well in the international scenario. Refernece List: App, S., Merk, J., Bttgen, M. (2012). Employer branding: Sustainable HRM as a competitive advantage in the market for high-quality employees.Management revue, 262-278. Boles, J. S., Dudley, G. W., Onyemah, V., Rouzies, D., Weeks, W. A. (2012). Sales force turnover and retention: A research agenda.Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management,32(1), 131-140. Farr, M. J. (2012).The long-term retention of knowledge and skills: A cognitive and instructional perspective. Springer Science Business Media. Ferreira, N. (2012).Constructing a psychological career profile for staff retention(Doctoral dissertation). Gerber, P. D., Nel, P. S., Van Dyk, P. S. (2012).Human resources management. Southern Book Publishers. Grant, A. M. (2012). Giving time, time after time: Work design and sustained employee participation in corporate volunteering.Academy of Management Review,37(4), 589-615. Grissom, J. A., Nicholson-Crotty, J., Keiser, L. (2012). Does my boss's gender matter? Explaining job satisfaction and employee turnover in the public sector.Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory,22(4), 649-673. Hom, P. W., Mitchell, T. R., Lee, T. W., Griffeth, R. W. (2012). Reviewing employee turnover: focusing on proximal withdrawal states and an expanded criterion.Psychological bulletin,138(5), 831. Hong, E. N. C., Hao, L. Z., Kumar, R., Ramendran, C., Kadiresan, V. (2012). An effectiveness of human resource management practices on employee retention in institute of higher learning: A regression analysis.International journal of business research and management,3(2), 60-79. Long, C. S., Ajagbe, A. M., Nor, K. M., Suleiman, E. S. (2012). The approaches to increase employees loyalty: A review on employees turnover models.Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences,,6(10), 282-291. Martin, J. E., Sinclair, R. R., Lelchook, A. M., Wittmer, J. L., Charles, K. E. (2012). Non standard work schedules and retention in the entry level hourly workforce.Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,85(1), 1-22. McCole, D., Jacobs, J., Lindley, B., McAvoy, L. (2012). The relationship between seasonal employee retention and sense of community: The case of summer camp employment.Journal of Park and Recreation Administration,30(2). Memili, E., Welsh, D. H. (2012). Towards a theory of nonfamily employees' organizational identification and attachment in family firms.Journal of Technology Management in China,7(3), 255-269. Morrison, L., Silverman, L. (2012). Retention theories, models, and concepts.College student retention: Formula for student success,61. Ployhart, R. E., Schneider, B., Schmitt, N. (2012).Staffing organizations: Contemporary practice and theory. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Zablah, A. R., Franke, G. R., Brown, T. J., Bartholomew, D. E. (2012). How and when does customer orientation influence frontline employee job outcomes? A meta-analytic evaluation.Journal of Marketing,76(3), 21-40.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

3M Safety - Marketing Strategies And Plans Click To Get Solution

Question: Discuss about the Marketing Strategy and Plan for 3M Safety. Answer: Introduction Process of the marketing is a crucial element for every organization. Marketing can be defined as an action of selling product and services by identifying the needs and wants of the customers. It also includes research, development and advertising. Every organization needs marketing to sell its products to its targeted customers. This report is basically provides the framework of marketing strategy and plan of the 3M company. The report is on marketing analysis of the company for developing marketing plan. Along with this, factors i.e. competitors analysis, SWOT analysis, target market, marketing mix of the company is also analyzed for making marketing plan. 3M Company is a well known technology company which serves customers and society with innovative products and services in Australia. One of the products of 3M Company is 3M Safety (hard hats) for which marketing plan has been done in this report. The company has strong market position in the Australian market. The company has aro und 650 employees and 11 locations in the Australia. Product lines of 3M Company are liquid filtration, car repair, microbiology products and automatic products (3M, 2016). The customer service department of the company gets around 80,000 orders of the product in every month. The services of the company include automotive, commercial, communications, consumer, design and construction, electronics, energy, health care, manufacturing, mining, oil and gas, safety, and transportation markets in Australia. Today 3m has its operations in more than 60 countries with more than 40 business units. Strategic values of the 3M Company are: To provide higher and best returns to the shareholders by quality and growth, To satisfy the customers by the unique products and services, To work for the welfare of the society, community and environment, and To become a successful country so that employees can feel proud working with it (3M, 2016). Target market of the company: Target market includes attracting the customers from different market. Target market is most significant part of marketing which includes research on consumers hobbies, tastes, interests and needs is done. Basically the concept of target market is that market where any company wants to sell its product and services including set of customers who are targeted. Target market is very crucial part for a companys marketing strategy. 3M Company serves globally with unique products that have been divided into different target markets. The product 3M safety is for the engineers to protect their head and face. For this product, hard hats, target market can be engineers and contractors who work of the constructions. The aim of this product is to deliver protection, safety and comfort (Marketwatch, 2016). Market (Environmental) analysis for the product 3M Safety Macro Environment Macro environment refers to the external environment of the business that cannot be controlled by the company. These factors impact on the performance and strategies and also influence its decision making power of the company. These factors include global, economic, demographics, legal/political, socio cultural, technologies factors. There are also some major internal and controllable factors in macro environment such as industry environment and competitors environments that affects organizations decision making (Turnbull Valla, 2013). There are two types of macro environment: External environment, and Internal environment. External environment A companys external environment consists of all those factors and influences from outside of the company while launching new product. Simply, it means those important factors which affects on companys directions, goals, business model, strategy. External environment includes four major aspects i.e. political aspect, economic aspect, social aspect and legal aspect (Penaloza, Toulouse, Visconti, 2013). Political aspects: 3M Company operates globally and there are different policies and rules imposed by different government in different countries where it is operated. The company adopts and follows each of the regulation imposed by the government. By doing this, company ensures that it is able to launch new product 3M safety successfully and effectively in different political environment. Along with this, company also has its own business strategy to overcome the government limitations and restrictions. Economic aspects: 3m Company is largest and competitive company with many product lines in the market. It has different product line such as electronic and health care, energy, industrial, safety and graphics etc. So, the company has stable economic stability for launching new products. Although there are many risks while operating globally but 3M Safety is able to do struggle to get good economic condition in the market. Social aspects: Every company has to face the some situations created by the society. 3M Company is also affected by the situations in the society where it is launching its new product. Company does not differentiate any customer from other customers. Company always tries to give equal chance to take advantage of the services in the society. The product 3M safety is for the engineers to protect their head and face. Technological aspects: 3M Company always tries to develop new products with the help of current technology such as IT system and internet so that it may be able to reach to its customers across the world. Company has used advanced technology for making this product. Advanced technology helps the company to know the latest development of the business. Along with this, company uses such technology which is suitable for its customers. Internal environment Internal environment includes insider f actors of the company and these factors can be controlled by the company itself. There are main two parts in the internal environment. Those parts are industry analysis and competitors analysis (Ghuman, 2010). Industry analysis: It means the production of the group of products and services by the company where substitutes of those products and services are available. 3M Safety is well known for its services in the Market. The product offers safety and protection to the engineers and workers. Along with this, company has first developed wireless tracking technology named Radio frequency identification (Havaldar, 2005). Competitors analsysis: This environment refers to the collection of information about competitors business, strategy, strength, weakness, and capabilities to operate the business (Brumfitt, 2001). Hard hats named 3M Safety have made a strong image among the customers in the market which makes it different from the competitors. This company is famous because it serves its customers with the same services but in the better quality from the competitors. Because of its quality services, company gets competitive advantages. There are many branches of the company across the world and they serve their customers effectively. Micro environment Todays world is now being so much competitive. Micro environment is an important factor for any company. This environment plays a significant role in the business operation for generating profit and revenue and fulfilling the customers needs and expectations. Macro environment includes three main factors i.e. competitors, public and customers. Competitors: Competitors refer to those people who make the business environment active and identify new ideas of doing business. They always create a good competitive environment and maintain a cooperative situation of business. 3M Safety has been made with unique quality compared to its competitors. 3M directly deals with customers and sometimes through numerous wholesalers, retailers, distributors, and dealers. Main competitors of the company are Johnson Johnson, Reece Australia, Queensland sugar, Ruralco Holdings, JK international etc. Public: It includes the community and society of the people by which company seeks for the success in the market.3M is trying to offer which is better for the public. The strategic goal of the company is to get success with the people that may be connected directly or indirectly with the company. Public includes customers, employees, media, partners and investors. Customers: Customers are the key parts f any business. If a company targets right customers for the product then it will lead success in the market. 3M safety offers safety and protection to its customers. The aim of this product is to retain existing customers and acquire new customers such as contractors, engineers from the market. The making company always focuses on the quality of products which is suitable for the customers. The product has got higher customer satisfaction level compared to its competitors. SWOT analysis of 3M SWOT analysis refers to the analysis of strength, weakness, opportunities and threats which identifies the helpful and harmful factors of the company. These four aspects for the product 3M safety are described below: Strength: 3M Safety has strong and diversified business in the local and international market with best services. It always tries to give best services to the customers. The product has strong brand image in international market. Because of the quality of this product, company generates good revenue and profit every year. This is a product with brand loyalty (Richards, 2010). Weakness: despite of strengths, the product has some weakness also. One of the weaknesses is that there is little weaker performance of 3M safety in the segmented areas. There is a lack of synergy in the business unit of the company. The company is more focused on the competitors and their activities. Along with this, company has weak marketing strategy to promote the product compared to competitors. Opportunities: continuously global expansion may be an opportunity for 3M safety. By the mergers and acquisitions, company can expand its business of 3M safety in the international market. Apart from this, company can invest more in other market for this product. Threats: Rules, regulations and policies imposed by the government may be one of the major threats for the 3M safety because the success of the product is affected by the legal and regulatory processes. Another threat can be cost of raw material in the country. Difference and fluctuation in the costs of labor may be affecting the operations of the business. Currency rates may also affect the success of the product because most of the sales of the 3M safety are in foreign market. Thus, currency rates may be other threats for the company. Objectives 3M Company has made the product for the safety of working persons named 3M safety. It is hard hats which are mainly designed for the protections of head and face of the engineers. The product hard hats provide comfort, safety, security and protection. This marketing plan of hard hats is to promote this product among the people. Objective of making this product is to ensure the safety and protection of customers. The hard hats are light weighted with different customization pattern. The hard hat is easy to adjust on the head and it has lens which protect the eyes. The main goal of the company by making hard hats is to provide safety and protection the engineers and construction workers. Marketing mix of 3M Marketing mix is one of the tools of marketing which is used for the marketing purpose by the company in the market. Marketing mix includes four Ps i.e. Product, Price Place and Promotion (Baker, 2003). Product: 3M safety hard hats have wide range of benefits i.e. safety, protection, comfort of eyes head and face. Now, company should focus to innovate in this product rather than introducing new products. Price: Price is a crucial factor which determines the future of any particular product or service of the company. 3M Company should focus on competitive prices with attractive offers for hard hats to acquire more and more customers. For targeting new customers, company should move in the pricing compared to competitors (Keegan, 2002). Place: The place refers to the appropriate channel to deliver the products and services to the customers. For targeting the customers for hard hats, 3M Company should use strong channels such as internet marketing, smart phones, computers etc. Company should include the best possible technology in its business operation to target new customers. Promotion: Promotion is very important for a business. Without promotional activities, a company cannot sale its products. To promote the product 3M safety hard hats, it is necessary that 3M Company should include new innovations in the promotional activities. Company can focus more on social media marketing through facebook, twitter to promote its products. Company can send e-mails to the consumers and can increase engagement of customers in the business (Pride Ferrel, 2008). Conclusion From the above discussion, it has been analyzed that 3M Company has maintained its brand name globally. It has wide range of products and services to serve the customers. This report has been basically discussed about the marketing strategy and plan of the hard hats. The report is on marketing analysis of the company for developing marketing plan for a product named 3M safety. By the SWOT analysis, it has been analyzed that 3M safety has strong position and strong revenue in the market. But, there are some weaknesses of the product such as weak marketing strategy and only focus on competitors strategy. These are the weaknesses from which company has to overcome. By adopting new strategies like social media marketing and shifting in price, company would be able to get success in its new product. References 3M, (2016), About 3M, accessed on 21st September 2016 from https://www.3m.com.au/3M/en_AU/company-au/?WT.mc_id=www.3m.com.au#pBus 3M, (2016), 3M Business Groups, accessed on 21st September 2016 from https://solutions.3m.com.au/wps/portal/3M/en_AU/about-3M/information/about/businesses/ Turnbull, P. W., Valla, J. P., (2013).Strategies for international industrial marketing. 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