Thursday, April 16, 2020

Safety of recycled water for drinking

Introduction Water recycling is the process by which individuals harness, treat and reuse water for various purposes. It may occur through water reclamation. This involves the treatment of sewage effluent for domestic and commercial use. Alternatively, recycled water may come from storm water or rain water.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Safety of recycled water for drinking specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Potable use is the human consumption of recycled water while planned reuse refers to deliberate treatment of wastewater for other uses. Recycled water holds a lot of promise in the field of agriculture and industry, but its application as a potable source is still quite contentious, limited and risky. Whether recycled water is safe for drinking The question of whether recycled water is safe for drinking is of high relevance to a discussion on water-borne diseases because raw waste water contains high amounts of faecal matter, so it takes a rigorous and fool proof method to eradicate all disease-causing pathogens in recycled waste water. Ashbolt (2004) explains that ingestion of unsafe drinking water transmits waterborne diseases. Usually, the water supply system of predisposed communities is susceptible to faecal contamination; over 1415 species of pathogens can be found in untreated waste water. Urine and faeces transmit these illnesses and may lead to severe complications or death. Typical examples include cholera, typhoid, gastroenteritis, infectious hepatitis, bacillary dysentery and amoeba, rotavirus, Escherichia Coli and Guardia Lamblia. Treatment of waste water may minimise certain pathogens, but in highly infected water, it is difficult to eliminate all of them. Furthermore, recycling methods need to correspond to the development of new water-borne diseases. Scientists must also be aware of the genetic evolution of pathogens, which may make conventional treatment methods inadequ ate. Chemicals may also threaten public health if present in recycled water. Conventional treatment may eliminate some chemicals, but could leave trace elements. Esposito et. al. (2005) affirm that the health effects of trace contaminants are still unclear at this point. Some organic compounds can disrupt hormonal systems even under extremely low concentrations. The international public health community is yet to create standards that would regulate treatment of waste water. Therefore, parties must use a multi-thronged approach which would require elimination of all the threats at different levels (Steyn et. al. 2004). This is not just painstaking; it may cause excessive use of municipal and government resources. Toze (2006) explains that membrane filtration is one of the few effective routes of treating wastewater for portable use. However, it is quite expensive and takes a long time to complete. Jimenez and Chavez (2004) underscore the need for rigor in the treatment of wastewater for domestic purposes.Advertising Looking for essay on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They assert that one must follow the fate of all the pollutants in the effluent in order to ascertain that they are absent. Esposito et. al. (2005) also outline some of the processes that waste water must go through during treatment. Disinfection and filtration systems in combination with secondary water treatment are effective for removing a portion of pathogens. The resulting product would only be sufficient for irrigation or non potable use. On the other hand, ultrafiltration would minimise the risks associated with suspended particles. Sometimes certain pathogens are resistant to these processes. For instance, if one uses tertiary treatment on recycled water, one is likely to find viruses like cryptosporidium (Toze 2006). Elimination of chemicals is also essential in making recycled water safe for ingestion. It wo uld include the use of a series of treatments like nano-filtration, advanced oxidation as well as reverse osmosis. Ion exchange, biological degradation and chemical precipitation, are some synonyms of the above processes (Morud 2009). Owing to the complexity and diversity of disease-causing organisms and compounds in raw waste water, it is difficult to assure consumers of complete eradication of these pathogens in drinking water. A number of advocates claim that recycled water is safe for drinking because water supply for key cities still comes from downstream rivers, which contain sewage effluent. However, using such a justification would be replacing one ill with another. It is one thing for cities to source their water from downstream rivers, with possible sewage contaminants. On the other hand, when the concerned institution deliberately takes sewage effluent, then this increases the concentration of pathogens (DTI 14). It would increase the health risks of the population substa ntially when countries replace contaminated river water with sewage effluent. Toze (2006) states that the concentration of pathogens in raw water supply highly affects the risks associated with treated waste water. If these sources have a high concentration of pathogens, health risks would increase. The author further states that treatment methods in current use leave certain pathogens in waste water. Cities such as New York are already investing so much in the cleanup of their water supply systems or estuaries (Esposito et. al. 2005). Furthermore, public health officials suggest the placement of barriers as an effective method of protecting the masses form recycled water risks. One way would be preventing direct contact with contaminants. Therefore, it would almost retrogressive to use sewage effluent if it is already perceived as a health problem in many parts of the world.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Safety of recycled water for drinking specifically fo r you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evidence from real-life cases is not sufficient to warrant consideration of recycled water for ingestion. Case studies on potable water reuse are few and hard to analyse. For instance, Anderson (2003) cites Orange County, in California, as one example. The county built a water reclamation plant that would treat water to drinking standard. Not only did it employ a series of aquifers, but it also injected the water under high pressure. After fifteen years of intensive work, the recycled water was still not used for drinking. Po et. al. (2003) also talks about the controversies involved in portable reuse. For instance, Singapore worked on a project known as NEWater. The government wanted the project to curb dependence on other countries for water supply. The Singaporean government even packaged the commodity in bottles such that the public could drink it conveniently. However, this plan did not work as few were willing to drink it. While the failure of the project failed due to public squeamishness towards the product, it still denied advocates of recycled water for potable use from having a tangible case study that could support their stand. Sometimes politics may come in the way of successful implementation of such projects. Scientific backing may exist to support the safety of a water reclamation project. However, if lobbyists and other political groups undermine the implementation of the scheme, then one cannot study the immediate and long term effects of ingesting recycled water. As a result, it is not possible to make conclusive statements about the project. Namibia is a recurrent case study in water recycling analyses. The city has been consuming recycled water from as far back as 1968. However, people rarely use recycled water directly in this country. Residents prefer blending the recycled water with conventional water. Sometimes the blend may be as high as 1:1 or may account for a quarte r of the system in use (Anderson 2003). Direct portable reuse is not widespread because it requires transportation of recycled water from treatment plants into people’s homes. The public and the scientific community are still not certain about the rigors of the treatment process. Therefore, many of them prefer to go for the indirect potable route (Marks et. al. 2006). If the pioneer of recycled water for potable use (Namibia) still cannot place all their confidence in reclaimed water, then one should question the plausibility of using the product for personal and human consumption. Conclusion Recycled water is not safe for drinking because of the health risks involved. Conventional treatment methods do not eliminate all microbes or chemical contaminants, and this could be dangerous. Additionally, few case studies exist to analyse the long term effect of 100% use (without blending) of recycled water among the masses.Advertising Looking for essay on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, one cannot employ the method without support from conventional treatment systems. Finally, deliberate introduction of wastewater into water supply systems would increase the number of contaminants that require eradication, and this would pose a greater health risk than contaminated downstream water. Unless stakeholders eradicate these bottlenecks, then recycled water should not be treated as safe for drinking. References Anderson, J 2003 ‘The environmental benefits of water recycling and reuse’, Water Science and Technology, vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 1-10. Ashbolt, N 2004 ‘Microbial contamination of drinking water and disease outcomes in developing regions’, Technology, vol. 198 no. 3, pp. 229-238. DTI 200 ‘Water recycling and reuse in Singapore and Australia’, DTI Global Watch Mission Report, November, p. 1-79. Esposito, K, Tsuchihashi, R, Anderson, J Selstrom, J 2005, ‘The role of water reclamation in water resources management in t he 21st Century’, Water Environment, vol. 101 no. 4, 8621-8635. Jimenez, B Chavez, A 2004, ‘Quality assessment of potential use of an aquifer recharged with wastewater’, Water Science Technology, vol. 50 no. 2, pp. 269-76. Marks, J, Martin, B Zadoroznyi, M 2006, ‘Acceptance of water recycling in Australia: national baseline data’, Water, March, p. 152-159. Morud, J 2009, Reclamation and reuse of wastewater, IUP, Iowa. Po, M, Kaercher, D Nancarrow, B 2003, ‘Literature review of factors influencing public perceptions of water reuse’, CSIRO Land and Water Technical Report, vol. 54 no. 3, pp. 1-33. Steyn, M, Jagals, P Genthe, B 2004, ‘Assessment of microbial infection risks posed by ingestion of water during domestic water use and full contact recreation in a mid southern African region’, Water Science and Technology, vol. 50 no. 1, pp. 301-308. Toze, S 2006, ‘Water reuse and health risks-real vs. Perceived’, De salination, vol. 187 no. 8, pp. 41-51. This essay on Safety of recycled water for drinking was written and submitted by user Erin Q. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, April 15, 2020

Essay Writing Sites - A Sign Of Success

Essay Writing Sites - A Sign Of SuccessYou must have heard about online essay writing sites, those sites that offer free services to write your essays online. Do you know what is the main reason for these online essay writing sites?Mainly they exist to generate income for the owners of these online essay writing sites. In order to earn income the owners of these online essay writing sites charge you a certain amount of money for writing your essay. But what if you do not have any extra cash?It would be a waste of money as you will not be able to use these online essay writing sites. There are lots of online essay writing sites available in the market and you should take the liberty of choosing the one that suits your needs. However, before selecting a site, you should be aware of how much you are charged.There are some sites that charge you for every word you write. These sites charge you high amount per word and may go as high as hundreds and thousands of dollars for the same amount of words. However, if you decide to opt for the free essay writing sites, you will get huge savings and a lot of time to spend on other things.The benefit of opting for free essay writing sites is that they will offer you some basic assistance so that you can save money. Some sites offer basic writing services free. You just need to provide them with your text and they will give you writing tips and grammar support so that you can complete your assignment easily.Most of the online essay writing sites will offer you essay editing services and this is really beneficial. If you find yourself repeating a lot of words and punctuation marks, you can always ask the site owner to correct it for you. This will definitely help you save time as you can focus on other more important issues. Before selecting a site, you should also consider the reputation of the site. You should check the reviews of the site that you want to choose. Most of the popular websites are quite costly and as a result, only those sites that have really good reputation are availed.Now you know that the main reason for the existence of these essay writing sites is not only to make money but also to enhance the skills of the people. Although it is true that some writers get paid through the free sites, many of the good writers earn a decent amount through these sites. So, be careful and select a good site.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Essay Topics About Late Middle Ages

Essay Topics About Late Middle AgesIt can be difficult to choose the best essay topics about late middle ages, as you need to go with a topic that will interest your audience. What you should avoid are the dry and meaningless topics that have been found throughout history. You want a topic that will give you real information that can be communicated in your essay.Are you trying to write an essay about the Middle Ages that relates to today's society? How do you find an article on an old topic that is still relevant and interesting? A good way to begin your search is by looking for current topics. The truth is that this is the easiest way to narrow down your choices.Most of the information that you will find in an essay will be information about that is current. The past is over, and it is time to look forward. Look at how information can be used to shape a discussion, rather than just leaving readers wondering where the information came from.It is also important to find articles that relate to your current topics. If you want to talk about marketing, check out articles that are in the field of marketing. The same goes for social media and the economy. You will find articles on topics like these if you look for them in magazines or on the internet.When it comes to essay topics about late middle ages, you also need to consider your audience. You may want to use this topic to help people get a better understanding of life at this point in time. The Internet has made this easier than ever before, as many people still rely on the newspaper and the television for news.Some people read more than others. If you want to talk about the change during the medieval period, youwill want to make sure that you are appealing to people who prefer reading short stories. They will want something that they can grasp fast and read over again. In some cases, they will not even notice that you went over something because you are interested in their opinion.The most common type of perso n who likes to read short stories is teenagers. They are the most curious and will take the information that you give them in a more modern light. With this in mind, they will appreciate your ability to translate your research into a good essay.Essay topics about late middle ages can be a lot of fun to research. However, it is important to remember that you are writing a work of academic literature. You will want to make sure that you use the right vocabulary, grammar, and composition so that your readers will see how educated you are.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

World War One Submarine Warfare Research Paper Topics

World War One Submarine Warfare Research Paper TopicsIf you are interested in military science, World War I submarine warfare research paper topics are available for study. To start your education on this topic, your research should begin with World War I submarine warfare paper topics.Submarine warfare is a key to a successful military force, but is also a key element of the social and political economy of modern warfare. Those who discover new technologies or ideas that could be used to enhance submarine warfare will find many opportunities for developing their craft into useful weapons.Warships are powerful weapons, as a warship's weapon system and the warship itself can dominate the battlespace and economy of the ocean. Naval research and development involve many vital aspects, from weapons and propulsion to ammunition and armament. World War I submarine warfare research paper topics would include submarine launching tubes, watertight compartments, and torpedo systems. Submarine warfare research paper topics would also include submarines and submarine torpedoes, submarine navigation, submarine air protection, and submarine torpedoes.Submarines and ships' watertight compartments make them very useful in combat with other ships. Watertight compartments allow water to pass through, while gun mounts allow for firing with the help of water pressure.A submarine torpedo is created from an element found in saltwater. Many researchers have concluded that this element can withstand extreme pressure, so that the creation of a torpedo was necessary for a submarine to travel through water and air.Modern warship's guns are some of the most powerful weapons in use today. In modern warfare, naval power, often equated with the use of modern naval weaponry, is vital to achieving victory.World War I submarine warfare research paper topics will look at the construction of torpedoes, submarine technology, and design. People interested in pursuing careers in this area should con sider getting a degree in naval science or a related field, such as technology. Finally, everyone interested in submarine warfare research paper topics should be sure to seek out as much information as possible, including current publications and as much historical information as possible.